Most people have difficulties with food. Either they eat too much, not getting the proper nutrients, or eat too little. Hunger is the lack of basic foods. When you are hungry your brain initiate a physiology response that prompts you to seek food for the energy and nutrients your body needs for proper functioning. Nutrition is the science that investigates the relationship between physiology function and the essential elements of the food we eat.
Food provides the chemicals we need for activity and body maintenance. Our bodies cannot synthesize certain essential nutrients. There are six groups of essential nutrients. Four of the six we need in large amounts are macronutrients, water, proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. The other two groups are micronutrients, vitamins and minerals, which we need smaller amounts. The digestive system must break down lager food particles into smaller, more usable forms before the body can use foods. First, the mouth prepares for the food by increasing production of saliva and contains an enzyme that begins breaking down some carbohydrates. From there, the food passes down the esophagus. In the stomach, food is mixed by muscular contractions and is broken down with enzymes and stomach acids. Further digestive activity and absorption of nutrients takes place in the small intestine. Water and salt are reabsorbed into the system by the large intestine. Solid waste movies into the rectum and is passed out through the anus.
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) is the recommended amounts of each nutrient group. The Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine publishes the DRIs. They established the amount of each nutrient needed to prevent deficiencies or reduce the risk of chronic disease, and identify maximum safe intake levels for healthy people. The DRIs are umbrella guidelines of the following categories: Recommended Dietary Allowances, Adequate Intakes, Tolerable Upper Intake Levels, and Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges. RDAs, AIs, and ULs are expressed as amounts. AMDRs are expressed as percentages. Kilocalorie is the unit of measure used to quantify the amount of energy in food. Kilocalorie is also known as calorie. Energy is defined as the capacity to do work.
Water is an important nutrient that we need. As humans, we can only survive for 1 week without water. If a person has an abnormal depletion of body fluids it’s known as dehydration. A person can also have too much water, hypomatremia, which can have serious risk to your health. Our bodies contain 50-70% water. Water in our system baths cells, aid in fluid and electrolyte balance, and maintain pH balance, and transports molecules and cells throughout the body. Water is also a major component of blood, which carries oxygen and nutrients to the tissues, removes metabolic waste, and keeps cells in working order. Dietary factors, age, size, overall health, environmental temperature and humidity, and exercise are varies on how much water you need.
Protein, most abundant substance in the human body, is another important essential nutrient. Protein is the “body builders” of nearly every cell. Their role is to develop and repair bone, muscle, skin, and blood cells. Proteins help transport iron, oxygen, and nutrients to all body cells, and supply another source of energy to cells when fats and carbohydrates are not available. Nine of the 20 amino acids are broken down in the body to obtain from your diet. The body can produce the other 11. Dietary protein that supplies all the essential amino acids is complete protein, usually from protein animal products. Incomplete proteins are proteins from plant sources and lack one or more of the essential amino acids.
Another essential nutrients are the carbohydrates. Carbohydrates supply the body with energy needed to sustain normal daily activities. The body metabolizes carbohydrates more quickly and efficiently than it does proteins for a quick source of energy. Carbohydrates are converted into glucose that fuels the body’s cells. Carbohydrates come in two forms simple and complex. Simple carbohydrates, simple sugar, are found naturally in fruits, vegetables, and dairy. Most common form is glucose. Glucose and fructose, fruits and berries, are monosaccharaides. Glucose provides energy to cells. Disaccharides are combination of two monosaccharaides. Sucrose, lactose, and maltose are common disaccharides. Complex carbohydrates are grains, cereals legumes, and other vegetables. These are called polysaccharides, long chains of monosaccharaides. Starches, glycogen, and fiber are also complex carbohydrates.
Fats are the most energy dense that fuels our bodies. Fats play a vital role in maintaining healthy skin and hair, insulting body organs against shock, maintaining body temperature, and promotion healthy cell function. Fats can make food taste better and carry vitamins A, D, E, and K to cells in the body. Fats can also make you feel full after eating. Some fats are less healthy than others because excessive consumption of fats can lead to weight gain. Triglycerides are the most common form of fat, 95% of total body fat, circulating in the blood. The liver converts the excess into triglycerides, which is stored throughout the body. Cholesterol, oily substances found in foods derived from animals, is other oil that we don’t not need to consume a lot of. This is because our livers can make all the cholesterol that we need. Neither triglycerides nor cholesterol can travel myself itself through the bloodstream. Lipoproteins, protein coat, covers triglycerides and cholesterol to help them move through the bloodstream. High-Density lipoproteins (HDLs) are high in protein and low in cholesterol and triglycerides. The high levels of HDLs are healthful in the blood because HDLs remove cholesterol from dying cells and from plagues within blood vessels, eventually transporting cholesterol to the liver and eliminating it from the body. However, low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) is much higher in both cholesterol and triglycerides than HDLs. LDLs travels in the bloodstream delivering cholesterol to body cells. LDLs is not taken up by cells degrade and release their cholesterol into the bloodstream. This cholesterol can then stick to the lining of blood vessels, contributing to the plaque that causes heart disease. Trans fatty acids can be very harmful to a person’s health. Trans fatty acids are found in processed foods made with partially hydrogenated oils.
Vitamins and Minerals are the last of the essential nutrients. Vitamins are organic compounds that promote growth and help maintain life and health. Vitamins help maintain nerves and skin, produce blood cells, build bones and teeth, heal wounds, and convert food energy to body energy. Vitamins can be fat or water-soluble. Vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat-soluble and C and B-complex are water-soluble. Minerals are the inorganic, indestructible elements that aid physiological processes within the body. Without minerals, vitamins could not be absorbed. Major minerals are the minerals that the body needs in fairly large amounts, sodium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sulfur, and chloride. Trace minerals, iron, zinc, manganese, coppers, fluoride, are only needed in small amounts.
Functional food or “super foods” are foods that confer health benefits beyond the nutrients they contribute to the diet. Antioxidants are the most popular functional foods. Salmon, yogurt, and cocoa are some super foods.
Reading and understanding food labels is very important! FDA and USDA developed the Nutrition Facts panel that is displayed on the back of food packages. % Daily values tells you how much of an average adult’s allowance for a particular substance, fiber, fat, carbs, etc. The %DV is calculated based on a 2,000 calorie per day. Its important to understand what a label is says.
My Plate food guidance system takes into consideration the dietary and caloric needs for a wide variety of individuals, such as pregnant or breast-feeding women, those trying to lose weight and adults with different activity levels. MyPlate encourages consumers to eat health through three areas:
- Balance calories. Finding out how many calories you need a day is the first step in managing your weight. Physically active also helps you be able to balance calories. Enjoying you food, but eating less. Avoid oversized portions.
- Increase some foods. Eat more vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and fat-free or 1% milk and dairy products. These foods have the nutrients you need for your health, like fiber, vitamins D, calcium, and potassium. Make half your plate fruits and vegetables. Choose vegetables that are red, orange, and dark-green vegetables. Have fruit added to your meals, like a side dish or dessert. Make at least half of your grains whole grain. Switch to fat-free or 1% milk. Experiment with some spices and herbs. Using spices and herbs will help eliminate extra sodium to your meals.
- Reduce some foods. Cut back on foods that are high in soil fats like added sugars, and salts. Compare sodium in foods like soup, bread, and frozen meals. Choosing low sodium items are better. Drink water instead of sugary drinks.
Vegetarianism and organic foods are the next in chapter 8. Vegetarian mean different things to different people. Vegans eat no animal products at all. While other vegetarians eat dairy or other animal products but not animal flesh, and some eat seafood but not beef, pork, or poultry. Dietary supplements are products intended to supplement existing diets. Ingredients range from vitamins, minerals, and herbs to enzymes, amino acids, fatty acids, and organ tissues. Dietary supplements are not intended to prevent or treat disease. Organic are foods and beverages developed, grown or aided without the use of synthetic pesticides, chemicals, or hormones. USDA is the label for certified organic foods. 81% of all U.S. families are now buying organic foods at least occasionally. One drawback of organic foods is that it’s more expensive than conventional foods. Locavore describes people who eat only food grown or produced locally, usually within close proximity to their homes. Farmers’ markets or homegrown foods are examples of locavore.
Food irradiation involves exposing foods to low doses of radiation or ionizing energy, which breaks chemical bonds in the DNA of harmful bacteria, destroying them or keeping them from reproducing. Genetically modified (GM) foods enhance production by making disease or insect-resistant plants, improving yield, or controlling weeds. Gm foods are sometimes created to improve foods’ appearance or enhance nutrients. Arguments for the development of GM foods:
- People have been manipulating food crops through selective breeding since the beginning.
- Genetically modified seeds and products are tested for safety
- Inset-and weed-resistant GM crops allow farmers to use fewer chemical insecticides and herbicides
- GM crops can be created to grow more quickly
Arguments against the Development:
- GM is fundamentally different from and more problematic than selective breeding.
- Not enough independent studies to confirm safety
- Inadvertent cross-pollination leads to “super weeds”
- Cooperation’s control the market, forcing farmers to become reliant.
Some people have food allergies. Food allergy or hypersensitivity is abnormal response to a food that is triggered by the immune system. An allergic reaction can vary and may cause tingling sensation in the mouth; swelling of whelps, tongue, and throat; difficulty breathing; hives, abdominal cramps; diarrhea; drop in blood pressure; loss of consciousness; and death. These symptoms may appear within seconds to hours after eating the foods to which one is allergic. Food intolerance can cause symptoms of gastric upset but the upset is not the result of an immune system response.
Nutrition is key to my health aspect of clean eating! Clean eating is a huge part of nutrition. Having a balance and healthy nutrition is a key component of clean eating. Making sure to have a balance healthy relationship is important. Going to my dietitian very week has helped me make the right choices. She uses a similar plate as the MyPlate. I also use the app MyFitness Pal to help me track my calories,water and Macros.
Since I have been feeling much bette. I have gotten back to my clean eating habits. I struggled a little bit of the weekend, I finally got my appetite and I ate. This week i am going to start back at the gym and tracking. I wasn’t tracking the last week and half.
My dinner plate for most nights..very hopefully to keep track
my brothers, their girlfriends, myself, and my cousin Andrew with his wife.