Violence and Unintentional Injuries

Violence is everywhere in the United States. Just flipping on the television or social media, there is news about some type of violence around the world. It is very sad to see how much violence there is. Interpersonal violence, collective violence, and self-directed violence are the three major categorizes of intentional injury. Interpersonal violence includes violence inflicted against one individual by another, or small group of others homicide; hate crimes, domestic violence, child abuse, elder abuse, and sexual victimization. Homicide is defined as murder or non-negligent manslaughter. Homicide is the 15th leading cause of death in the U.S. Hate crime is a crime committed against a person, property, or group of people that is motivated by the offender’s bias against a race, religion, disability, sexual orientation, or ethnicity. Bias-related crime, ethnoviolence, describes violence based on prejudice and discrimination among ethnic groups in the larger society. Prejudice is an irrational attune of hostility directed against an individual, group, or race. Discrimination constituted actions that deny equal treatment or opportunities to a group of people, often based on prejudice. Reasons why hate crimes are so prominent in our society:

  1. Thrill seeking by multiple offenders through a group attack
  2. Feeling threatened that others will take their jobs or property or best them in some way.
  3. Retailing for some real or perceived insult or slight.
  4. Fearing the unknown or differences.

For some people hate crime is their mission in life, either because of religious zeal or distorted moral beliefs.

Here are some factors that contribute to violence:

  • Community contexts- Environments where interactions with unsafe neighborhoods, schools, and workplaces predominate increase risks of exposure to drugs, guns, and gangs. Inadequately staffed police and social services add to risk.
  • Societal factors- Social and cultural norms that support make dominance over women and violence as a means of settling problems increase risks.
  • Religious beliefs and differences- Extreme religious beliefs can lead people to think that violence against others is justified.
  • Political difference- civil unrest and differences in political part affiliations and beliefs have historically been triggers for violent acts.
  • Breakdowns in the criminal justice system- Overcrowded prisons, lenient sentences, early releases, and inadequate availability of mental health services can encourage repeat offenses and further violence.
  • Stress- People who are in crisis or under stress are more apt to be highly reactive, striking out at others, displaying anger, or acting irrationally.

Personal facts can increase risks for violence also. Family and home environment may be the greatest contributor to eventual violent behavior among family member. Anger tends to be an active, attack-oriented emotion in which people feel powerful and in control for a short period. Anger occurs when there is a trigger event. Aggressive behavior is a key aspect of violent interactions. Primary aggression is goal-directed, hostile self-assertion that is destructive in nature. Reactive aggression is more often part of an emotional reaction brought about by frustration. Substance abuse is also linked to violence.

I feel that media has an impact on the amount of violence in our country. I feel that media does play a part of numbing people to humanity. Which allows people to commit violence without empathy or regret or even triggers violence events. There are many places where younger people can see violence like televisions, Internet, movies, and video games.

Their spouse, partner, parent, or child can victimize victims of violence and abuse. Domestic violence refers to the use of force to control and maintain power over another person in the home environment. Intimate partner violence describes physical, sexual, or physiological harm done by a current or former partner or spouse. Child abuse refers to acts of commission, which are deliberate or intentional words or actions that cause harm, potential harm, or threat of harm to a child. Neglect is an act of omission, meaning a failure to provide for a child’s basic needs for food, shelter, clothing, medical care, education, or proper supervision. The cycle of violence is important to understand. There are three major phases of the cycle.

  1. Tension building. This phase occurs prior to the overtly abusive act and includes breakdowns in communication, anger, psychological aggression and violent language, growing tension, and fear.
  2. Incident of acute battering. The batterer is trying to “teach her a lesson”. He feels he has inflicted enough pain, he stops. When the acute attack is over, he may respond with shock or denial about his own behavior or blame her for making him do it.
  3. Remorse/reconciliation. “Honeymoon” period, the batterer may be kind, loving, and apologetic, swearing that he will never act violently again and will work to change his behavior. However, when things that triggered past abuse resurface, the cycle starts over.

People who stay with their abuser may do so because they are dependent on the abuser, they fear the abuser, or they love the abuser. In some cultures, women may not be free to leave an abusive relationship because of restrictive laws, religious beliefs, or social mores.

Being there for the person and helping them get out of the situation would be helpful. Getting help by going to clinical, counsel or a trusted person for help. Asking my friend to stay with me for the night or as long as she may need too. Listening to her and not making her feel bad about the situation like telling her it’s her fault. Going to an advisor, trusted teacher, nurse, or any places that offer help.

The three types of rape are aggravated, simple, and acquaintance. Aggravated rape is any rape involving one or multiple attackers, strangers, weapons, or physical beatings. Simple rape is a rape perpetrated by one person, whom the victim knows, and does not involve a physical beating or use of weapon. Acquaintance rape refers to any rape in which the victim knows the rapist. Acquaintance rape is more common when the offender or victim has consumed drugs or alcohol. Alcohol is frequently involved in rape sometimes with drugs adding like Rohypnol and GHB. If someone or yourself is a victim of rape you should get help immediately. Either being a hospital, clinic, police station, or campus police. Social contributors to sexual violence are as followed:

  • Trivialization- some people think that rape committed by a husband or intimate partner does not count as rape.
  • Blaming the victim- Still belief that some women “asks” for sexual advances from the way they are or the way they dress.
  • Pressure to be macho- Males that show emotions as sign of weakness. This portrayal often depicts men ad aggressive and predatory and females as passive targets,
  • Male socialization- some people believes that “boys will be boys”.
  • Male misperceptions- some men believe that when women say “no”, that they are asking to be seduced. Some of believes is because of media.
  • Situational factors- Males makes all the decisions, pays for everything, and generally controls the entire situations are more likely to end in an aggressive sexual scenario. Alcohol and other drugs increase the risk and severity of assaults.

Unwelcome sexual advances, request for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature constitute sexual harassment. These occur when: submission to such conduct is made either explicitly or implicitly a term or condition of an individual’s employment or education. Submission to or rejection of such conduct by an individual is used as the basis for employment or education-related decisions affecting such an individual. Such conduct is sufficiently severe or pervasive that it has the effect, intended or unintended, of unreasonably interfering with an individual’s work or academic performance because it has created an intimidating, hostile, or offensive environment and would have such an effect on a reasonable person of that individual’s status. Stalking is defined as conduct directed at a person that would cause a reasonable person to feel fear. Repeated visual and physical proximity, nonconsensual written or verbal communication, and implied or explicit threats are examples of stalking. The most common stalking behavior is some type of technology like unwarranted phone calls and messages, spreading rumors. Spying on the victim, and showing up at the same places as the victim without having a reason to be there. Ways and steps that you can take if you feel or being sexual harassed or stalked are:

  • Tell the harasser to stop. Be clear and direct. Tell the person that you will report them to the police if it does not stop. If a person is harassing or stalking you over the phone or Internet, you can block that person.
  • Document the harassment. Make a record of each incident. Save all copies of all communication from the harasser.
  • Try to make sure you aren’t alone in the harasser’s presence.
  • Complain to a higher authority. Talk to legal authorities or your instructor, advisor, or counseling center psychologist about what happened.
  • Remember that you have no done anything wrong. Feel proud that you are not keeping silent. Even if you feel awful for speaking up and getting help.

The following tips to let a potential assailant know that you mean what you say and are prepared to defend yourself:

  • Speak in a strong voice. DO not use questions like ” Will you please leave me alone? use more of a statement like “leave me alone!”. Never/avoid apologies and excuses. Sound like you mean it.
  • Maintain eye contact with a would-be attacker. Eye contact keeps you aware of the person’s movements and conveys an aura of strength and confidence.
  • Stand up straight, act confident, and remain alert.
  • If you are attack, act immediately. Draw attention to yourself and the assailant. Scream, “Fire!” This will alert more people because they are more inclined to help if they hear the word fire.
  • If you are a victim of rape, here is are steps to follow;
  • Call 9-1-1
  • Do not bathe, shower, douche, clean up, or touch anything that the attacker may have touched
  • Save the clothes you were wearing, and do not launder them. These clothes are evidence. Bring a change of clothes to the clinic or hospital that you go too.
  • Contact the rape assistance hotline in your area, and ask for five on therapists or counseling if you need additional help or advice.

For a friend or family member is a victim of rape, here at steps and help you can offer them:

  • Believe the rape victim. Don’t ask questions that may appear to imply that she/he is at fault in any way for the assault/
  • Recognize that rape is a violent act and that the victim was not looking for this to happen.
  • Encourage your friend to see a doctor immediately. Offer to go with her.
  • Encourage her to report the crime
  • Be understanding, and let her know you will be there for her.
  • Recognize that this is an emotional recovery, and it may take months or years for her to bounce back.
  • Encourage your friend to seek counseling

Reducing your risk of dating violence:

  • Prior to your date, think about your values, and set personal boundaries before you was out the door.
  • If a situation feels like it is getting out of control, stop and talk, speak directly, and don’t worry about hurting feelings. Be firm.
  • Watch you alcohol consumption
  • Do not accept beverages or open-container drinks form anyone you do not know well or trust.
  • Never leave a drink or food unattended
  • Go out with several couples or in a group when dating someone new
  • Stick with your friends when going out.
  • Pay attention to your date’s actions
  • Practice what you will say to your date if things go in an uncomfortable direction.

The four types of activities responsible for distracted driving is looking at something other than the road, hearing something not related to driving, manipulating something other than the steering wheel, and thinking about something other than driving. Before it become a law, I did text and drive. I still text however when I am at a red light or are in traffic. Yes, I know that still isn’t good. I try my best not too and I have stop. When in the car with the boys I babysit for I do not use my phone at all. Honestly, I am not sure. I feel that younger drivers should not be able to use the phone at all while they are driving. I know that I sometimes I use the phone to talk to my mom, dad, or my aunt. I feel like if there is an emergency that people should be able to use the phone if they need too. Like I said I am on the fence. I understand why it should be banned and I agree with those reasons.

Biking, skateboarding, snow sports, and swimming and boating are recreational activities that commonly involve injury. Here are lists of safety precautions that a person can take to them safe.

  1. Bike safety:
  • Wear a helmet approved by the American National Standards Institute or the Snell Memorial Foundation.
  • Watch the road and listen for traffic sounds. Never listen to an MP3 player or talk on a cell phone, even hands free.
  • Don’t drink and ride
  • Follow all traffic laws, signs, and signals
  • Ride with the flow of traffic
  • Wear light or brightly colored, reflective clothing that is easily seen at dawn, dusk, and during full daylight.
  • Safe Skateboarding:
  • Wear an approved helmet, padded clothes, special skateboarding gloves, and padding for your knees and other joints.
  • Between uses, check your board for loose, broken, sharp, or cracked parts, and have it repaired if necessary.
  • Examine the surface where you’ll be riding for holes, bumps, and debris.
  • Never skateboard in the street
  • Never hitch a ride form a car, bicycle, or other vehicle.
  • Practice complicated stunts in specially designed areas, wearing protective padding.
  • Don’t speed.
  • Don’t ride alone.
  • Don’t drink and ride.

2. Safety in the Snow:

  • Wear an approved helmet.
  • Keep skis and snowboards in good condition.
  • Choose trails according to your ability.
  • Pay attention to the locations of others.
  • If you stop, move to the side of the trail.
  • Observe all posted signs and warnings.

3. Water Safety:

Swimming:

  • Don’t drink alcohol before or while swimming
  • Don’t enter the water without a life jacket unless you can swim at least 50 feet unassisted.
  • Know your limitations
  • Never swim alone.
  • Never leave a child unattended, even in swallow water.
  • Before entering water, check the depths.
  • Never swim in a river with currents too swift for easy, relaxed swimming.
  • Never swim in muddy or dirty water that obstructs your view of the bottom.
  • If you’re caught in a rip current, swim parallel to the shore. Once you are free of the current, swim toward shores.
  • Learn CPR. CPR preformed by bystanders has been shown to improve outcomes in drowning victims.

Boating:

  • Before leaving home, let others know where you are going, who will be with you, and when you are except to return.
  • Check the weather. Listen to advisories regarding high winds, storms, and other environmental factors.
  • Even for shot trips, make sure the vessel doesn’t lead, has enough fuel, and has proper safety equipment.
  • Make sure your have enough life jackets for all on board, make life jackets accessible.
  • Carry an emergency radio and cell phone.
  • Don’t drink alcohol before you leave, and don’t bring any on boards.
  • Wear a lifejacket.

Most injuries to the back are in the lumbar spine area. Strengthening core muscles groups and stretching muscles to avoid cramping and spasm reduce the risk. The frequent reasons why people ages 20 to 45 have low back pain is sports injuries, stress on spinal bones and tissues, the sudden jolt of a car accident, or lifting heavy objects. Sitting too ling in the same position or hunching over your computer can cause pain to your back. Getting up and stretch helps when working in the same position will help your back. Good posture can also reduce back problems. Other measures you can take to reduce the risk of back pain:

  • Invest in a high-quality, support mattress
  • Avoid high-heeled shoes, which tilt the pelvis forward
  • Control your weight
  • Warm up and stretch before exercising of lifting have objects
  • When lifting something heavy, use proper form. Do not bend from the waist or take the weight load on your back
  • Buy a desk chair with good lumbar support
  • Move you car seat forward so your knees are elevated slightly.
  • Engage in regular exercise.
  • Downside your backpack.
  • Use these strategies to help maintain your alignment in your back:
  • Sit comfortably with your feet flat on the floor or on a footrest, and your knees level with you hips. Raise or lower your chair, or move to a different chair, to achieve this position.
  • Your middle back should be firmly against the back of the chair. The small of your back should be supported.
  • Keep your shoulders relaxed and straight, not rolled or hunched forward.
  • The angle of your elbows should be 90 degrees to your upper arms. Adjust your position or the position of your device to achieve this angle.
  • Ideally, you should be looking straight ahead, not peering down at the device’s screen.

This chapter was a little difficult to relate with my health aspect of clean eating. However, this chapter can relate to my health as a whole. Knowing the proper ways to keep myself safe is very important. Knowing the signs of abuse and violent relationship will help me understand if I can in an unhealthy relationship. Also, knowing the signs of abuse will help me know if someone is in a troubled relationship or need help.

This week has been doing a whole lot better! I have been back at the gym and eating all healthy meals. One challenge I gave myself this week is to keep track of my water intake. I have been nailing it all week! I also made cauliflower “fried” rice the other night! It was delicious, and my dad had no idea!

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