CVD, Cancer, and Diabetes

Cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, and diabetes, these three major causes are the leading cause of deaths in the Unites States. Many people knows at least one person how suffers for one of these. The scarier fact is its probably most of you knows more than more people who suffer from this illness. Personally, all of my grandparents dead from at least one of these diseases. I had an uncle who passed away a few years ago from colon cancer at the age of 56. My grandmother suffered from a heart disease. I have a second cousin who battles with diabetes. Its sad that many people across the world and mostly in the United States are suffering with these causes. Through out chapter 11, the chapter focuses on CVD, cancer, and diabetes.

CVD are diseases that affect the heart and blood vessels. 1 of 3 adults suffers with some type of CVD. CVD claims more lives each year than cancer, chronic lower respiratory diseases, and accidents. Obesity, hypertension, and diabetes are contracting to the raise of CVD because of their growing rates. The cardio system is made up of organs and vessels. This network helps blood flow as it carries oxygen and nutrients to all parts of the body. The heart, arteries, arterioles, veins, venules, and capillaries are all including in this network too. The heart is a muscular, four-chambered pump, roughly the size of your fist. The human body contains about 6 quarts of blood. The blood transfers nutrients, oxygen, waste products, hormones, and enzymes throughout the body. An average adult heart beats 70 to 80 times per minute at rest. Heart activity depends on the complex interaction of biochemical, physical, and neurological signals. The pathway of the blood flowing through the heart and blood vessels are as followed. Deoxygenated blood flows into the right atrium from the superior and inferior venue cavae. Blood moves from the right atrium into the right ventricle. From there it is pumped through the pulmonary arteries into the lungs. Blood picks up oxygen and discards carbon dioxide in the lungs. Then it goes through the pulmonary veins into the left atrium. Oxygenated blood is forced from he left atrium into the left ventricle. From there it is pumped through the aorta into the rest of the body’s blood vessels.

Hypertension, atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, and stroke are the major CVD. Each of these diseases causes death and disabilities. Hypertension refers to sustained high blood pressure. Hypertension is the silent killer because people often don’t know they have it. 1 in 3 U.S. adults have high blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured by two numbers, systolic pressure (top number) and diastolic pressure (bottom number). Blood pressure classification:

Classification              Systolic Reading (mm Hg)                Diastolic Reading (mm Hg)

Normal                       Less than 120                                    And     Less than 80

Prehypertension       120-130                                 Or        80-89


Stage 1           140-159                                 Or        90-99

Stage 2           Greater than or                     Or        Greater than or

equal to 160                                      equal to 100

Prehypertension is when the blood pressure is above normal. Treatments for hypertension involve dietary changes (reducing sodium and calorie intake), weight loss (when appropriate), use of diuretics and other medications (when prescribed by a physician), regular exercise, treatment of sleep disorder such as sleep apnea, and the practice of relaxation techniques and effective coping and communication skills.

Atherosclerosis is the fatty substances, cholesterol, cellular waste products, calcium, and fibrin build up in the inner lining of an artery. Hyperlipidemia (an abnormally high blood lipid level) is a key factor in this process, and resulting build up which is called plaque. Arteries become clogged by a buildup of plaque. When atherosclerosis occurs in coronary arteries, blood flow to the heart muscle is restricted and a heart attack may occur. Atherosclerosis is often called coronary artery disease (CAD). Atherosclerosis also occurs in the lower extremities, which is called peripheral artery disease (PAD). PAD usually affects over 65 people, non-Hispanic blacks, and women in the United States. Treatment for atherosclerosis mostly focuses on lifestyle changes, drugs that reduce the risk of plague, medical procedures to open vessels or surgery to open clogged vessels.

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the greatest killer of CVD. 1 in 6 deaths in the United States will be CHD. Myocardial infarction (MI) or a heart is when an area of the heart that suffers permanent damage because its normal blood supply has been blocked. This condition is brought on a coronary thrombosis (clot) or an atherosclerotic narrowing that blocks a coronary artery. Common heart attack symptoms and signs:

Sign or symptom                                           Gender who most commonly experiences

Crushing or squeezing chest pain                           more common in men

Pain radiating down arm, neck, or jaw                   more common in men

Chest discomfort or pressure with shortness        Women fell pressure than pain

Have breathe, nausea/vomiting, or                        Women and men


Shortness of breath without chest pain,                more common in women

Discomfort in back, neck, or

Jaw or in one or both arm

Unusual weakness                                                    more common in women

Unusual fatigue                                                         more common in women

Sleep disturbance                                                     more common in women

Indigestion, flulike                                                    more common in women

Stroke occurs when blood supply to the brain is interrupted, killing brain cells, which have little capacity to heal or regenerate. There are four blood vessel disorders that can lead to stroke.

  1. Thrombus is a blood clot that forms inside a blood vessel and blocks the flow of blood at its origin.
  2. Embolus is a blood clot that breaks off from its point of formation and travels in the bloodstream until it lodges in a narrowed vessel and blocks blood flow.
  3. Hemorrhage occurs when a blood vessel bursts allowing blood to flow into the surrounding tissue or between tissues
  4. The most life-threatening hemorrhagic stroke, aneurysm is the bulging of a weakened blood vessel wall.

FAST, Facial droop Arm weakness Speech difficulty and Time to ACT and call 9-11, is the acronym is a simple test for strokes.

  • Facial Droop: Ask the person to smile. If both side of the face moves equally its normal. It is abnormal if one side moves less easily.
  • Arm Weakness: Ask the person to raise both arms. Normal if both arms move equally or not at all. Abnormal id one arm drifts or cannot be raised as high as the other.
  • Speech Difficulty: Have the patient restate a sentence, like “You can’t teach a dog new tricks”. Normal if they can say the sentence correctly, not normal if they use inappropriate words, slur or cannot speak.
  • Time to ACT and call 9-1-1: Don’t delay if you note 1 to3 above. Time is of the essence.

Other CVD:

  • Angina Pectoris- occurs when there is not enough oxygen to supply the heart muscle, resulting in chest pain or pressure. Mild-to-sever symptoms of angina, from digestion or heartburn-like sensation to chest pain.
  • Arrhythmias- an irregularity in heart rhythm that occurs when the electric impulses in your heart that coordinate heartbeat don’t with properly.
  • Congestive Heart Failure- acute shortness of breath and fatigue are often key. HF can be fatal.
  • Congenital and Rheumatic Heart Disease- 32,000 children in the United States are born with it. Rheumatic heart disease is attributed to rheumatic fever, an inflammatory disease caused by an unresolved streptococcal infection of the throat.

Metabolic syndrome is a group of metabolic conditions occurring together that increase a person’s risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. MetS is believed to increase atherosclerotic heart disease by as much as 3 times normal rates. 20% of people ages 20 to 30, 41% ages 40 to 59, and 52% people over the age of 60 meat the criteria of MetS. However National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel say the criteria of metabolic syndrome a person must have at least three of the following risks:

  • Abdominal obesity- more than 40ins in men and 35ins in women
  • Elevated blood fat- triglycerides greater than 150 mg/dL
  • Low lever of high-density lipoprotein- least than 40mg/dL in men and less than 50mg/gL in women
  • Blood pressure is greater than 130/85 mm Hg
  • Fasting glucose greater than 100mg/dL- a sign of insulin resistance or glucose intolerance

LDL is the low-density lipoprotein. LDL is the “bad” cholesterol. Which is believed to build up on artery walls. LDL cholesterol levels should be lower numbers which is the better for a person; less than 100mg/dL optimal, 100 to 129 mg/dL near or above optimal. DL or high-density lipoprotein is the “good” cholesterol. HDL cholesterol levels should be higher number are better, less then 40mg/dL (for men) are low and 60 mg/dL and above desirable. HDL removes the build up from LDL. If LDL levels get too high and HDL levels are too low, cholesterol will accumulate inside arteries and lead to cardiovascular problems. Triglycerides are stored fat cells to provide energy. High counts of blood triglycerides are often found in people who are obese or overweight that have high cholesterol levels, heart problems, or diabetes. Triglycerides level should be a lower number, less than 150mg/dL.

Many risk factors for CVD can be modified. These modified would be cigarette smoking, high blood cholesterol and triglycerides levels, hypertension, lack of exercise, a diet high in saturated fat, obesity, diabetes, and emotional stress. Some factors would be age, gender, and heredity. These factors cannot be modified. Electrocardiogram (ECG) is a record of the heart’s electrical activity. Patients may undergo a stress test, like exercising on a stationary bike or treadmill with an electrocardiogram, or a nuclear stress test, which involves injecting a radioactive dye and taking images of the heart to reveal blood flow problems. Coronary bypass surgery is an established treatment for heart blockage. However increasing numbers of angioplasty procedures and stents are being used with great success. During therapies can be used to prevent and treat CVD.

Cancer is group of diseases that are uncontrolled growth and spreading of abnormal cells. Some tumors are malignant, cancerous; most tumors are benign, noncancerous. Metastasis is the process that cancer goes through. First cells are genetically altered. Cell divides more rapidly than normal. Cells change form. In situ cancer is a cell that stays in one place. Malignant tumor, cancer, invades normal tissue and enters blood and lymph. There are four broad categories for cancerous tissues; carcinomas, sarcomas, lymphomas, leukemia’s. Hereditary facts cannot be modified. However, environmental factors are modifiable. Tobacco use, Alcohol use, poor nutrition, physical inactivity, obesity, and stress and psychosocial are all lifestyle risks for cancer.

Lung Cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths for both men and women in the Untied States. 90% of all lung cancers could be avoided if people did not smoke. Symptoms of lung cancer include persistent cough, blood-streaked sputum, voice change, chest pain or back pain, and recurrent attacks of pneumonia or bronchitis. Surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted biological therapies are all options to treatment for lung cancer.

Breast Cancer is a group of diseases that cause uncontrolled cell growth in breast tissue. Cancer can form in the connective and lymphatic tissues of the breast. 1 to 8-lifetime risk of being diagnosed with breast cancer.

Another cancer are colon, skin, rectal, prostate and testicular, ovarian, cervical and endometrial and leukemia and lymphoma. All of these cancers can be prevented by healthy choices and exercises. Eating nutrients diets of fruits and vegetables, lean proteins, and whole grain will help the fight against cancer.

Eight million people in the U.S. are undiagnosed diabetics. 1 in 3 people in the U.S. will have diabetes by 2050. A healthy person, a sufficient amount of insulin is produced and released by the pancreas and used efficiently by the cells. Type 1 diabetes the pancreas makes little or no insulin. In type 2 diabetes, either the pancreas does not make sufficient insulin or cells are resistant to insulin and thus are notable to use it efficiently.

This chapter opened my eyes to take my healthy seriously! This chapter relates to my health aspect of cleaning eating. I must have a clean food items to help fight against cancer, diabetes, and CVD. This is something that I can control. I may not be able to control my genetics but I can control on how to live my life in a healthier manner. I cannot express how much this chapter has made me really think about my health. Out of all the chapters that I have read, this one is really made me think and put more life interpretive.

This week has been difficult. I have lost my way. However, after this chapter I am ready to get back on track! I am hoping that I don’t overdo it with Thanksgiving!

Happy Thanksgiving to everyone!



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