Addiction and Drug Abuse

Addition and drug abuse is a major issue in the United Sates. So many people are addicted to some type of drug, either process addictions (addictive behaviors) or illegal or legal drugs. Addition is continued use of a substance or activity despite ongoing negative consequences. All addictions share four common symptoms; compulsion, loss of control, negative consequences, and denial. The biopsychosoical model of addiction takes into account biological or genetic factors as well as psychological and environmental influences in understanding the addiction process. The model also touches on the social learning theory. Social learning theory proposes that people learn behaviors by watching role models. These role models could be parents, caregivers, significant other or celebrities. Family and friends of an addicted person struggle with codependency. Codependence are family members or friends who are controlled by an addict’s behavior. Enablers are people who protect addicts from consequences of their behaviors. Addictive behaviors or process addictions are behaviors known to be addictive because they are mood altering. Some process addictions are gambling disorder, compulsive buying, technology addictions, work addiction, excercise addition, sexual addiction, and multiple additions.

There are many different ways that drugs can enter someone’s system. Snorting, oral ingestion, inhalation, transdermal, and injection are the ways that a drug can enter. Snorting: drug is absorbed through mucous membranes into bloodstream

Oral ingestion: drug is absorbed into the bloodstream in the stomach and small intestine, then passes through the liver before being circulated throughout the body

Inhalation: drug enters the bloodstream through capillaries in the lungs

Transdermal: drug is absorbed into the bloodstream through the skin

Injection: intravenously injected drug enters bloodstream directly at veins; intramuscularly and subcutaneously injected drugs enter the bloodstream through capillaries in muscles and skin.

Scientists divide drugs into six categories. Some drugs stimulate the body. Some depress body functions. Others produce hallucinations. Psychoactive drugs includes:

Prescription drugs- drugs that can only obtained with a prescription from a license health care practitioner.

Over-the-counter drugs (OTCs)- can be purchased without a prescription.

Recreational drugs- drugs that’s are depend upon how the term recreation is defined. These drugs can help people relax or socialize like alcohol, caffeine, or tobacco.

Herbal preparations- 750 substances including herbal teas and other products of botanical plants

Illicit (illegal) drugs- psychoactive drugs, that are harmful to people.

Commercial preparations- chemical substances,  1,000 exist.

Controlled substances include cocaine and its derivatives, amphetamines, methamphetamine, marijuana, opioids, depressants, hallucinogens/psychedelics, inhalants, and steroids.

Treatment begins with abstinence from the drug or addiction behavior, usually instituted through invention by close family, friends, or other loved ones. Without treatment, an addict is apt to relapse or to change addictions. Treatment involves learning new ways of looking at oneself, others, and the world. Treatment may require exploring a traumatic past so psychological wounds can heal. Learning interdependence with significant others and new ways of caring for oneself physically and emotionally. One common treatment plan is the 12 step program. 12 steps plan works with admitting of having a problem, recognizing there is an outside power that could help, consciously relying on that from defects, apologizing to those one has harmed, and helping others with the same problem.

This chapter was difficult to relate to my health aspect of cleaning eating.

I know I am off a week, and this is really late, but I have been battling with a serve sinus head cold. It unfortunately started on Wednesday of last week, I thought I would be able to conquer it with sleep and fluids but that didn’t work. Finally on monday(yesterday) I called my doctor. She recommended some over the counter medicines, Claritin, Flonase, and Afrin. I have to take these for the next 3 days and hope for that I will help. Day two and I still feel like crap! So I have not really been on the ball with my cleaning eating. ,lastly I have eaten crackers, soup, oj, water, and toast. I have no desire to eat! Hoping to finally feel better! My cat Casey and I snuggling on the couch when I was sick this weekend. img_0010

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