Consumerism and Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Taking responsibility for your health care is important. Knowing the proper way to medicine you and finding the most appropriate doctor for yourself. Even with complementary and alternative medicine, someone should make sure it the correct route for their health. Chapter 15 provides this information and opens different methods in keeping yourself healthy.

Knowing when you need to see a doctor is important. You just do not need to go to the doctor because you have a common cold. Here are some common forms of self-care:

Most minor afflictions can be treated without professional help. Self-care is behaviors that people can practice to promote health, prevent disease, and minimize reliance on the formal medical system. Self-care consists of knowing your body, paying attention to its signals, and taking appropriate actions. Some common forms of self-care are:

  • Diagnosing symptoms or conditions that occur frequently but may not require physician visits, like the common cold.
  • Preforming monthly breast or testicular self-examinations
  • Checking blood pressure, pulse, and temperature.
  • Doing periodic checks for blood cholesterol.
  • Benefiting form nutrition, rest, exercise, and mediation and other relaxation techniques.

Here is a list of when you should consult a physician:

  • A serious accident or injury
  • Sudden or serve chest pain, especially if they cause breathing difficulties
  • Trauma to the head or spine accompanied by persistent headache, blurred vision, loss of consciousness, vomiting, convulsions, or paralysis
  • Sudden high fever or recurring high temperature and/or sweats
  • Tingling sensation in the arm accompanied by slurred speech or impaired though processes
  • Adverse reactions to a drug or insect bite
  • Unexplained bleeding or loss of fluid from any body opening
  • Persistent or recurrent diarrhea or vomiting
  • Blue-colored lips, eyelids, or nail beds
  • Any lumps, swelling, thickness, or sore that does not subside or that grows for over a month
  • Any marked change or pain in bowel or bladder habits
  • Yellowing of the skin or the whites of the eyes
  • Any symptom that is unusual and recurs over time
  • Pregnancy

Allopathic medicine care providers use evidence-based medicine, in which decisions regarding patient’s care are based on a combination of clinical expertise, patient values, and current best scientific evidence. Primary care practitioner (PCP) is medical practitioner you can visit for routine ailments, preventive care, general medical advice, and referrals. Some PCP I use are my gynecologist and my primary care. Osteopaths are a specialist that are general practitioners who receive training similar to that of MDs, but who place special emphasis on the skeletal and muscular systems. An ophthalmologist holds a medical degree and can perform surgery and prescribe medication for eye care. You would need to see an ophthalmologist for eye infections, glaucoma, or other eye condition that requires diagnosis and treatment. An optometrist typically evaluates visual problems and fits glasses but is not a trained physician. Dentists are specialists who diagnose and treat diseases of the teeth, gums, and oral cavity. Orthodontists specialize in the alignment of teeth. Oral surgeons perform surgical procedures to correct problems of the mouth, face, and jaw. Nurses are highly trained and strictly regulated health professionals who provide a wide range of services. Nurse practitioners are nurses with advanced training obtained through either a master’s degree program or a specialized nurse practitioner program. They have the training and authority to conduct diagnostic tests and prescribe medications. Physician assistants examine and diagnose patients, offer treatment, and write prescriptions under a physician’s supervision.

Prescription drugs are drugs that are written prescription form a physician, whereas over-the-counter drugs can be purchased without a prescription. Over-the-Counter (OTC) drugs are nonprescription substances used for self-medication. Knowing the information on the package of drugs is very important before you take them. Here is common OTC that people take.

  • Pain relievers can be useful for counteracting localized or general pain and for reducing fever. Aspirin, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and naproxen sodium are examples of pain relievers. Possible side effects are stomach problems ranging from simple stomach upset to worsening of ulcers, overdose or prolonged over use can cause liver damage. Aspirin and ibuprofen also reduce blood-clotting ability and can also trigger serve allergic reaction for some people.
  • Cold and allergy medicines mask symptoms in many ways. Antihistamines are used for dry running noses, clear postnasal drip and sinus congestion, and reduce tears. They are mild central nervous system depressants and can cause downiness, dizziness, and disturbed coordinated. Decongestants reduce nasal stuffiness due to colds. Side effects depend on how a person may react to the medication. Some may exhibit nervousness, restlessness, and sleep problems, where others may feel drowsy or nauseated.
  • Antacids relieve “heartburn”, usually by combating stomach acid with a chemical base such as calcium or aluminum. Occasional use is safe, however chronic use can lead to reduced mineral absorption from food, possible concealment of ulcer, reduced effectiveness of anticlotting medications, interference with the function of certain antibiotics, worsened high blood pressure, and aggravated kidney problems.
  • Laxatives are designed to relieve constipation. Long-term regular use can lead to reduced absorption of minerals from food, dehydration, and even dependency,
  • Sleep aids and relaxants are designed to help relieve occasional sleeplessness. Short-term side effects are drowsiness and reduced mental alertness, dry mouth, and throat, constipation, dizziness, and lack of coordination. Long-term uses can lead to dependency.

Complementary medicine is used together with conventional medicine as part of a modern integrative-medicine approach. Massage therapy along with prescription medicine to anxiety is an example of complementary medicine. Alternative medicine has traditionally been used in place of conventional medicine, like following a special diet. The following groups are more likely to have used CAM:

  • More women than men
  • People with higher educational levels
  • People who have been hospitalized in the past year
  • Former smokers
  • People with back, neck, head, or joint aches or other painful conditions
  • People with gastrointestinal disorders or sleeping problems

Many people seek CAM therapies as alternatives to the conventional Western system of medicine, which some people regard as too invasive, too high-tech, and too toxic in terms of laboratory-produced medications. Some CAM patients believe that alternative practices will give them greater control over their health care. Practitioners of most complementary and alternative therapies spend years learning their practice. Conventional medicine, there is no national training, certification, or licensure standard for CAM practitioners, whereas practitioners of conventional medicine have graduated from U.S. sanctioned schools by the American Medical Association. Each CAM domain has a different set of training standards, guidelines for practice, and licensure procedures. Nearly all health insurance providers cover at least one form of CAM, with acupuncture, chiropractic, and massage therapy being the most common. However, people who choose CAM often must pay the full cost of services themselves. The top five CAM therapies in the U.S. are natural products, deep breathing, meditation, chiropractic and osteopathic, and massage.

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) emphasizes the proper balance or disturbances of qi or vital energy, in health and disease. Diagnosis is based on personal history, observation of the body, palpation, and pulse diagnosis, an elaborate procedure requiring considerable skill and experience by the practitioner. Techniques such as acupuncture, herbal medicine, massage, and qigong are among the TCM approaches to health and healing. TCM is complex, and research into its effectiveness is limited. Ayurveda relates to the “science of life”, an alternative medical system that began and evolved over thousands of years in India. Seeks to integrate and balance the body, mind, and spirit and to restore harmony in the individual. There are various techniques, including questioning, observing, and touching patients and classifying patients into one of three body types, or doshas, before establishing a treatment plan. Homeopathy medicine is an unconventional Western system based on the principle that “like cures like”, the same substance that in large doses produces the symptoms of an illness will in very small doses cure the illness. Naturopathy medicine views disease as a manifestation of the body’s effort to ward off impurities and harmful substances from the environment. Naturopathy physicians emphasize restoring health rather than curing disease. They employ an array of healing practices like nutrition, homeopathy, acupuncture, herbal medicine, and more.

Functional foods are foods that are said to improve some aspect of physical or mental functioning beyond the contribution of their specific nutrients. Food producers sometimes refer to their functional foods as nutraceuticals to emphasize their combines nutritional ants pharmaceuticals benefits. Some common types of functional foods are:

  • Plant stanols/sterols. Reduces “bad” low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol.
  • Oat fiber. Can lower LDL cholesterol; serves as a natural soother of nerves; stabilizes blood sugar levels.
  • Soy protein. May lower heart disease risk by reducing LDL cholesterol and triglycerides.
  • Garlic. Lowers cholesterol and reduces clotting tendency of blood; lowers blood pressure; may serve as a form of antibiotic.
  • Ginger. May prevent motion sickness, stomach pain, and stomach upset; discourages blood clots; may relieve rheumatism.
  • Probiotics. Yogurt and other fermented dairy foods that are labeled “Live and Active Cultures” contain active, friendly bacteria called probiotics. Normal residents of the large intestine, probiotics foods are thought to reduce the risk for certain types of infections, including opportunistic yeast infections and those associated with acute diarrhea.

Health insurance helps people pay for doctor visits. Policyholders pay premiums into a pool, which is held in reserve until needed. Originally, health insurance consisted solely of coverage for hospital costs, but gradually it was extended to cover routine treatment and other areas. To limit potential losses, private insurance companies began increasingly employing several mechanisms: cost sharing, waiting periods, exclusions, “preexisting condition” clauses, and upper limits on payments. Managed care describes a health care delivery system consisting of a network of providers and facilities linked contractually to deliver health benefits within a set annual budget, sharing economic risk, with membership rules for participating patients.

This chapter relates to my health aspect of cleaning eating by knowing the different alternative and cleaner medicines I can take rather than possible chemicals. Also, getting check-ups by my primary care is important to my healthy lifestyle. This final week of my health aspect has been a good one. I am happy to say that throughout this behavior change, I have lost about 10 pounds. I am happy with the results. I am also feeling better about myself and getting more sleep, thanks exercise! J I have decided to keep my health aspect going. I am hoping that in a year this will become a new lifestyle. Hope everyone has a safe and happy holiday season! And GOOD LUCK with finals!

I figured that this last photo is appropriate because I relayed on these guys a lot through my journey and still will! This is my family, my parents, my younger brother and his girlfriend, and my older brother and his fiancé.



Environmental Health

The impact of our population growth on the ecosystem is an everywhere and scary. Experts are analyzing the carrying capacity of the earth, which is the largest population that can be supported indefinitely, given the resources available in the environment. Experts are saying by 2030, we will need two planets to meet the demand for resources for people to survive. One huge impact of the over growing of the population is on the impact on other species. Changes in the ecosystem are resulting in mass destruction of many species and their habitats. Rain forests are being depleted, oceans are being polluted, and over half of the world’s wetlands have been lost in the last century. Twelve percent of all birds are threatened, more than 100 species of mammals are already extinct, and tiger populations have declined by 95% in the last century. Another impacts of the population growth are food supply, land degradation and contamination of drinking water, and energy consumption. The most serious ways that overpopulation in harming our environment is everything that is listed above. We as humans need food and water to survive. Without these we will all die. Also, we need animals to survive on this plant too. Not only can a food sources but some animals help with the environment.

Air pollutants are either naturally occurring or anthropogenic, human caused. Naturally occurring air pollutants include particulate matter, like ash from a volcanic eruption. Anthropogenic sources include those caused by stationary sources and mobile sources. Stationary sources are power plants, factories, and refineries. Mobile sources are vehicles. The major contributors of mobile sources air pollutants are carbon monoxide, sulfur oxide, and nitrogen oxide. Photochemical smog, air quality index, acid deposition and acid rain, and ozone layer depletion are all components of air pollution. Smog is a brownish laze produced by the photochemical reaction of sunlight with hydrocarbons, nitrogen compounds, and other gases in vehicle exhaust. This is known as ozone pollution because ozone is a main component of smog. Long-term exposure poses serious health risks, especially in children, older adults, and pregnant women, and people with chronic respiratory disorders. The most noticeable effects of smog are difficulty breathing, burning eyes, headaches, and nausea. Air quality Index is the measurement of how clean or polluted the air is on a given day and if there is any health concerns related to air quality. AQI focuses on health effects that can happen within a few hours or days after breathing polluted air. The ozone layer forms a protective stratum in the Earth’s stratosphere. The ozone layer protects our planet and its inhabitants from ultraviolent B radiations. UVB rays are the primary cause of skin cancer. This radiation damages DNA and weakens the immune systems. Certain atoms are causes the ozone molecules to break apart and ozone levels to be depleted. These chemicals are chlorofluorocarbons or CFCs. Some changes you can take to reduce air pollution is to drive less if possible, ride your bike or walk more, take public transportation, or carpool with others.

Climate change and global warning is a major issue in the world. Climate change is the shift in typical weather patterns across the world. Changes in fluctuation in seasonal temperatures, rain or snowfall amounts, and the occurrence of catastrophic storms are all examples of climate change. We have seen all of these changes in the Massachusetts, Untied States, and around the world. Global warming is a type of climate change where average temperatures increase. Over 97% of scientists now agree the planet is warming and this warming has been driven primarily by human activity. Climate change poses major risks to lives, and excess greenhouse gases are the key culprits. The greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon in which greenhouse gases like CO2, nitrous oxide, methane, CFCs, and hydrocarbons, form a layer in the atmosphere, allowing solar heat to pas through and trapping some of the heat close to the surface, where it warms the planet.

Two harmful water pollutants are point source and non point source. Point source pollutants enter a waterway at a specific location such as a rich or pipe. The two major entry points are sewage sewage treatment plants and industrial facilities. Non point source pollutants, runoff and sedimentation, drain or seep into waterways from soil erosion and sedimentation, construction wastes, pesticide and fertilizer runoff, street runoff, acid mine drainage, wastes from engineering projects, leakage from septic tanks, and sewage sludge. The five greatest potential harmful causing pollutants are gasoline and petroleum products, chemical contaminants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PBCs), dioxins, and pesticides. Here is a list of how people can reduce water waste:

In the Kitchen:

  • Turn off the tap while washing dishes.
  • Check faucets and pipes for leaks.
  • Equip faucets with aerators to educe water use by 4%.
  • Wash only full dishwasher loads, using the energy-saving mode.
  • In the Laundry Room:
  • Wash only full laundry loads
  • Upgrade to a high-efficiency washing machine

In the Bathroom:

  • Detect and fix leaks.
  • Install a high-efficiency toilet that uses 60% less water.

Take showers instead of baths.

  • Replace old showerheads with efficient models that use 60% less water.
  • Turn off the tap while brushing your teeth to save up to 8 gallons of water per day.

There are different ways that a person can adopt to control food-related solid waste.

  • Source reduction (waste prevention) involves altering the design, manufacture, or use of products and materials to reduce the amount and toxicity of what gets thrown away. MSW-reducing strategy is the most effective. MSW-reducing strategy is to prevent waste from ever being generated in the first place. This would be like some places taxing or banning plastic bags in stores.
  • Recycling involves sorting, collecting, and processing materials to be reused in the manufacture of new products.
  • E recycling involves properly disposing of trashed computers, televisions, cell phones, and other electronic devices.
  • Composting involves collecting organic waste, such as food scraps and yard trimmings, and allowing it to decompose with the help of microorganisms. At my house we have a composting bin in our backyard. My father puts old vegetables, food scraps, and the trimmings from branches in the yard.
  • Combustion with energy recovery involves the use of boilers and industrial furnaces to incinerate waste and use the burning process to generate energy.

Five changes that I can on a daily basis to help the environment are turning lights off when leaving a room or restroom. Most of the time I forget to turn off the lights when leaving a public restroom like Starbucks. I can make it more of a happen to remember to turn them off when I am done. When going to be the grocery, which isn’t necessarily every day, I can bring my reusable shopping bags. I always forget them when I go on Sunday or Monday. Instead I will make a conscious effort to bring them. Another daily lifestyle change, which I have been doing the last couple of weeks, is using a reusable water bottle. I have been increasing my intake of water and had been using plastic water bottles instead of my water bottle. I am happy to report on both that I have been using my water bottle more and drinking more water than I had been. I also can make better decisions in recycling plastic items and cardboard. I have been lacking in this. I also can make at least one or two days of the week a meatless day/days. Eating more vegetables, nuts, legumes, and other food crops will help reduce the consumption of meat, dairy, and animal products.

This chapter relates to my health aspect of clean eating and health in as a whole. I try to eat as much fruits and vegetables that I can. I have limited my meat intake as much as possible. I usually have one day of no meat. Keeping our Earth clean and healthy is very IMPORTANT! I know that I have been trying to do better in keeping the Earth clean by recycling and eliminating waste. This year my dad asked for solar panels for Christmas. My bothers and I got him a few. Which will help us eliminate our use of fossil fuels.

This week has been a good one, well in my eyes! LOL. I have been watching what I have been eating, eliminated my night outs, and increased my exercise! I have been drinking my water and cut out the soda completely.

In the picture is my mom and dad when we went to dinner the other night! They love taking selfies lol!


Violence and Unintentional Injuries

Violence is everywhere in the United States. Just flipping on the television or social media, there is news about some type of violence around the world. It is very sad to see how much violence there is. Interpersonal violence, collective violence, and self-directed violence are the three major categorizes of intentional injury. Interpersonal violence includes violence inflicted against one individual by another, or small group of others homicide; hate crimes, domestic violence, child abuse, elder abuse, and sexual victimization. Homicide is defined as murder or non-negligent manslaughter. Homicide is the 15th leading cause of death in the U.S. Hate crime is a crime committed against a person, property, or group of people that is motivated by the offender’s bias against a race, religion, disability, sexual orientation, or ethnicity. Bias-related crime, ethnoviolence, describes violence based on prejudice and discrimination among ethnic groups in the larger society. Prejudice is an irrational attune of hostility directed against an individual, group, or race. Discrimination constituted actions that deny equal treatment or opportunities to a group of people, often based on prejudice. Reasons why hate crimes are so prominent in our society:

  1. Thrill seeking by multiple offenders through a group attack
  2. Feeling threatened that others will take their jobs or property or best them in some way.
  3. Retailing for some real or perceived insult or slight.
  4. Fearing the unknown or differences.

For some people hate crime is their mission in life, either because of religious zeal or distorted moral beliefs.

Here are some factors that contribute to violence:

  • Community contexts- Environments where interactions with unsafe neighborhoods, schools, and workplaces predominate increase risks of exposure to drugs, guns, and gangs. Inadequately staffed police and social services add to risk.
  • Societal factors- Social and cultural norms that support make dominance over women and violence as a means of settling problems increase risks.
  • Religious beliefs and differences- Extreme religious beliefs can lead people to think that violence against others is justified.
  • Political difference- civil unrest and differences in political part affiliations and beliefs have historically been triggers for violent acts.
  • Breakdowns in the criminal justice system- Overcrowded prisons, lenient sentences, early releases, and inadequate availability of mental health services can encourage repeat offenses and further violence.
  • Stress- People who are in crisis or under stress are more apt to be highly reactive, striking out at others, displaying anger, or acting irrationally.

Personal facts can increase risks for violence also. Family and home environment may be the greatest contributor to eventual violent behavior among family member. Anger tends to be an active, attack-oriented emotion in which people feel powerful and in control for a short period. Anger occurs when there is a trigger event. Aggressive behavior is a key aspect of violent interactions. Primary aggression is goal-directed, hostile self-assertion that is destructive in nature. Reactive aggression is more often part of an emotional reaction brought about by frustration. Substance abuse is also linked to violence.

I feel that media has an impact on the amount of violence in our country. I feel that media does play a part of numbing people to humanity. Which allows people to commit violence without empathy or regret or even triggers violence events. There are many places where younger people can see violence like televisions, Internet, movies, and video games.

Their spouse, partner, parent, or child can victimize victims of violence and abuse. Domestic violence refers to the use of force to control and maintain power over another person in the home environment. Intimate partner violence describes physical, sexual, or physiological harm done by a current or former partner or spouse. Child abuse refers to acts of commission, which are deliberate or intentional words or actions that cause harm, potential harm, or threat of harm to a child. Neglect is an act of omission, meaning a failure to provide for a child’s basic needs for food, shelter, clothing, medical care, education, or proper supervision. The cycle of violence is important to understand. There are three major phases of the cycle.

  1. Tension building. This phase occurs prior to the overtly abusive act and includes breakdowns in communication, anger, psychological aggression and violent language, growing tension, and fear.
  2. Incident of acute battering. The batterer is trying to “teach her a lesson”. He feels he has inflicted enough pain, he stops. When the acute attack is over, he may respond with shock or denial about his own behavior or blame her for making him do it.
  3. Remorse/reconciliation. “Honeymoon” period, the batterer may be kind, loving, and apologetic, swearing that he will never act violently again and will work to change his behavior. However, when things that triggered past abuse resurface, the cycle starts over.

People who stay with their abuser may do so because they are dependent on the abuser, they fear the abuser, or they love the abuser. In some cultures, women may not be free to leave an abusive relationship because of restrictive laws, religious beliefs, or social mores.

Being there for the person and helping them get out of the situation would be helpful. Getting help by going to clinical, counsel or a trusted person for help. Asking my friend to stay with me for the night or as long as she may need too. Listening to her and not making her feel bad about the situation like telling her it’s her fault. Going to an advisor, trusted teacher, nurse, or any places that offer help.

The three types of rape are aggravated, simple, and acquaintance. Aggravated rape is any rape involving one or multiple attackers, strangers, weapons, or physical beatings. Simple rape is a rape perpetrated by one person, whom the victim knows, and does not involve a physical beating or use of weapon. Acquaintance rape refers to any rape in which the victim knows the rapist. Acquaintance rape is more common when the offender or victim has consumed drugs or alcohol. Alcohol is frequently involved in rape sometimes with drugs adding like Rohypnol and GHB. If someone or yourself is a victim of rape you should get help immediately. Either being a hospital, clinic, police station, or campus police. Social contributors to sexual violence are as followed:

  • Trivialization- some people think that rape committed by a husband or intimate partner does not count as rape.
  • Blaming the victim- Still belief that some women “asks” for sexual advances from the way they are or the way they dress.
  • Pressure to be macho- Males that show emotions as sign of weakness. This portrayal often depicts men ad aggressive and predatory and females as passive targets,
  • Male socialization- some people believes that “boys will be boys”.
  • Male misperceptions- some men believe that when women say “no”, that they are asking to be seduced. Some of believes is because of media.
  • Situational factors- Males makes all the decisions, pays for everything, and generally controls the entire situations are more likely to end in an aggressive sexual scenario. Alcohol and other drugs increase the risk and severity of assaults.

Unwelcome sexual advances, request for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature constitute sexual harassment. These occur when: submission to such conduct is made either explicitly or implicitly a term or condition of an individual’s employment or education. Submission to or rejection of such conduct by an individual is used as the basis for employment or education-related decisions affecting such an individual. Such conduct is sufficiently severe or pervasive that it has the effect, intended or unintended, of unreasonably interfering with an individual’s work or academic performance because it has created an intimidating, hostile, or offensive environment and would have such an effect on a reasonable person of that individual’s status. Stalking is defined as conduct directed at a person that would cause a reasonable person to feel fear. Repeated visual and physical proximity, nonconsensual written or verbal communication, and implied or explicit threats are examples of stalking. The most common stalking behavior is some type of technology like unwarranted phone calls and messages, spreading rumors. Spying on the victim, and showing up at the same places as the victim without having a reason to be there. Ways and steps that you can take if you feel or being sexual harassed or stalked are:

  • Tell the harasser to stop. Be clear and direct. Tell the person that you will report them to the police if it does not stop. If a person is harassing or stalking you over the phone or Internet, you can block that person.
  • Document the harassment. Make a record of each incident. Save all copies of all communication from the harasser.
  • Try to make sure you aren’t alone in the harasser’s presence.
  • Complain to a higher authority. Talk to legal authorities or your instructor, advisor, or counseling center psychologist about what happened.
  • Remember that you have no done anything wrong. Feel proud that you are not keeping silent. Even if you feel awful for speaking up and getting help.

The following tips to let a potential assailant know that you mean what you say and are prepared to defend yourself:

  • Speak in a strong voice. DO not use questions like ” Will you please leave me alone? use more of a statement like “leave me alone!”. Never/avoid apologies and excuses. Sound like you mean it.
  • Maintain eye contact with a would-be attacker. Eye contact keeps you aware of the person’s movements and conveys an aura of strength and confidence.
  • Stand up straight, act confident, and remain alert.
  • If you are attack, act immediately. Draw attention to yourself and the assailant. Scream, “Fire!” This will alert more people because they are more inclined to help if they hear the word fire.
  • If you are a victim of rape, here is are steps to follow;
  • Call 9-1-1
  • Do not bathe, shower, douche, clean up, or touch anything that the attacker may have touched
  • Save the clothes you were wearing, and do not launder them. These clothes are evidence. Bring a change of clothes to the clinic or hospital that you go too.
  • Contact the rape assistance hotline in your area, and ask for five on therapists or counseling if you need additional help or advice.

For a friend or family member is a victim of rape, here at steps and help you can offer them:

  • Believe the rape victim. Don’t ask questions that may appear to imply that she/he is at fault in any way for the assault/
  • Recognize that rape is a violent act and that the victim was not looking for this to happen.
  • Encourage your friend to see a doctor immediately. Offer to go with her.
  • Encourage her to report the crime
  • Be understanding, and let her know you will be there for her.
  • Recognize that this is an emotional recovery, and it may take months or years for her to bounce back.
  • Encourage your friend to seek counseling

Reducing your risk of dating violence:

  • Prior to your date, think about your values, and set personal boundaries before you was out the door.
  • If a situation feels like it is getting out of control, stop and talk, speak directly, and don’t worry about hurting feelings. Be firm.
  • Watch you alcohol consumption
  • Do not accept beverages or open-container drinks form anyone you do not know well or trust.
  • Never leave a drink or food unattended
  • Go out with several couples or in a group when dating someone new
  • Stick with your friends when going out.
  • Pay attention to your date’s actions
  • Practice what you will say to your date if things go in an uncomfortable direction.

The four types of activities responsible for distracted driving is looking at something other than the road, hearing something not related to driving, manipulating something other than the steering wheel, and thinking about something other than driving. Before it become a law, I did text and drive. I still text however when I am at a red light or are in traffic. Yes, I know that still isn’t good. I try my best not too and I have stop. When in the car with the boys I babysit for I do not use my phone at all. Honestly, I am not sure. I feel that younger drivers should not be able to use the phone at all while they are driving. I know that I sometimes I use the phone to talk to my mom, dad, or my aunt. I feel like if there is an emergency that people should be able to use the phone if they need too. Like I said I am on the fence. I understand why it should be banned and I agree with those reasons.

Biking, skateboarding, snow sports, and swimming and boating are recreational activities that commonly involve injury. Here are lists of safety precautions that a person can take to them safe.

  1. Bike safety:
  • Wear a helmet approved by the American National Standards Institute or the Snell Memorial Foundation.
  • Watch the road and listen for traffic sounds. Never listen to an MP3 player or talk on a cell phone, even hands free.
  • Don’t drink and ride
  • Follow all traffic laws, signs, and signals
  • Ride with the flow of traffic
  • Wear light or brightly colored, reflective clothing that is easily seen at dawn, dusk, and during full daylight.
  • Safe Skateboarding:
  • Wear an approved helmet, padded clothes, special skateboarding gloves, and padding for your knees and other joints.
  • Between uses, check your board for loose, broken, sharp, or cracked parts, and have it repaired if necessary.
  • Examine the surface where you’ll be riding for holes, bumps, and debris.
  • Never skateboard in the street
  • Never hitch a ride form a car, bicycle, or other vehicle.
  • Practice complicated stunts in specially designed areas, wearing protective padding.
  • Don’t speed.
  • Don’t ride alone.
  • Don’t drink and ride.

2. Safety in the Snow:

  • Wear an approved helmet.
  • Keep skis and snowboards in good condition.
  • Choose trails according to your ability.
  • Pay attention to the locations of others.
  • If you stop, move to the side of the trail.
  • Observe all posted signs and warnings.

3. Water Safety:


  • Don’t drink alcohol before or while swimming
  • Don’t enter the water without a life jacket unless you can swim at least 50 feet unassisted.
  • Know your limitations
  • Never swim alone.
  • Never leave a child unattended, even in swallow water.
  • Before entering water, check the depths.
  • Never swim in a river with currents too swift for easy, relaxed swimming.
  • Never swim in muddy or dirty water that obstructs your view of the bottom.
  • If you’re caught in a rip current, swim parallel to the shore. Once you are free of the current, swim toward shores.
  • Learn CPR. CPR preformed by bystanders has been shown to improve outcomes in drowning victims.


  • Before leaving home, let others know where you are going, who will be with you, and when you are except to return.
  • Check the weather. Listen to advisories regarding high winds, storms, and other environmental factors.
  • Even for shot trips, make sure the vessel doesn’t lead, has enough fuel, and has proper safety equipment.
  • Make sure your have enough life jackets for all on board, make life jackets accessible.
  • Carry an emergency radio and cell phone.
  • Don’t drink alcohol before you leave, and don’t bring any on boards.
  • Wear a lifejacket.

Most injuries to the back are in the lumbar spine area. Strengthening core muscles groups and stretching muscles to avoid cramping and spasm reduce the risk. The frequent reasons why people ages 20 to 45 have low back pain is sports injuries, stress on spinal bones and tissues, the sudden jolt of a car accident, or lifting heavy objects. Sitting too ling in the same position or hunching over your computer can cause pain to your back. Getting up and stretch helps when working in the same position will help your back. Good posture can also reduce back problems. Other measures you can take to reduce the risk of back pain:

  • Invest in a high-quality, support mattress
  • Avoid high-heeled shoes, which tilt the pelvis forward
  • Control your weight
  • Warm up and stretch before exercising of lifting have objects
  • When lifting something heavy, use proper form. Do not bend from the waist or take the weight load on your back
  • Buy a desk chair with good lumbar support
  • Move you car seat forward so your knees are elevated slightly.
  • Engage in regular exercise.
  • Downside your backpack.
  • Use these strategies to help maintain your alignment in your back:
  • Sit comfortably with your feet flat on the floor or on a footrest, and your knees level with you hips. Raise or lower your chair, or move to a different chair, to achieve this position.
  • Your middle back should be firmly against the back of the chair. The small of your back should be supported.
  • Keep your shoulders relaxed and straight, not rolled or hunched forward.
  • The angle of your elbows should be 90 degrees to your upper arms. Adjust your position or the position of your device to achieve this angle.
  • Ideally, you should be looking straight ahead, not peering down at the device’s screen.

This chapter was a little difficult to relate with my health aspect of clean eating. However, this chapter can relate to my health as a whole. Knowing the proper ways to keep myself safe is very important. Knowing the signs of abuse and violent relationship will help me understand if I can in an unhealthy relationship. Also, knowing the signs of abuse will help me know if someone is in a troubled relationship or need help.

This week has been doing a whole lot better! I have been back at the gym and eating all healthy meals. One challenge I gave myself this week is to keep track of my water intake. I have been nailing it all week! I also made cauliflower “fried” rice the other night! It was delicious, and my dad had no idea!


Infectious Conditions

Pathogens, disease-causing agents, are found throughout the world. Endemic, infectious disease like a common cold, presented all thought the Earth’s population. Epidemic is when the number of cases of a disease suddenly increases with higher than projected endemic numbers. Pandemic is a globally epidemic like influenza.

Too much stress, inadequate nutrition, a low fitness level, lack of sleep, misuse or abuse of legal and illegal drugs, poor personal hygiene, and high risk behaviors significantly increase the risk of infection in the body. Too much stress, inadequate nutrition, and low fitness level would make me more susceptible to infection. As on the road to a healthier self, I have been doing much better not getting sick. However, before I decide to change I was sicker than I have ever been in a long time. I believe that changing my life styles has help fight off colds and other sicknesses.

Most diseases are multifactorial. This means the disease is caused by the interaction of several factors inside and outside a person. The person or host must be susceptible. An agent capable of transmitting a disease must be present and the environment must be hospitable to the pathogen. Outside or foreign substances capable of causing disease are antigens. Virus, a bacterium, a fungus, a parasite, a toxin, or a tissue or cells from another organism are examples of antigen. A person can become immune to some of these antigens. Immunity is a condition of being able to resist a particular disease by counteracting the substance that produces the disease. This is how the immune system works. The antigens invade the body by breaking through one of our protective barriers. Helper T cells recognize the invading antigens and trigger the production of killer T cells and B cells. Killer T cells destroy infected cells. B cells produce antibodies that attach to antigens and mark them for destruction by macrophages. When the treat is over, suppressor T cells stop the activity of B cells, killer T cells, and macrophages. Memory B and T cells are reserved so the body can respond quickly to future attacks by the same antigen. Some ways to reduce your risk of infectious disease, limit your exposure to pathogens, exercise regularly, get enough sleep, stress less, and optimize eating.

Different types of antigens:

  • Bacteria: simple, single-celled microscopic organisms. Can be treated by antibiotics. However antibiotics are becoming less effective because they are becoming antibiotic resistance. Examples are staphylococci, MRSA, strep throat or streptococcus, meningitis, pneumonia, TB, and tick-borne bacterial diseases.
  • Viruses: smallest known pathogens. A protein structure that contains either ribonucleic acid (RNA) or deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Can be difficult to treat. Drug treatments are limited. Examples are mononucleosis, Hepatitis, herpes virus, mumps, measles, rubella, common cold, and the flu.
  • Other pathogens: Fungi are multi- or unicellular organisms that obtain food by infiltrating the bodies of other organism, both living and dead. Edible mushrooms, penicillin, and yeast are all fungus that is not harmful to humans. However candidiasis (vaginal yeast infection), ringworm, jock itch, and toenail fungus are common fungal diseases. Coccidiomycosis (valley fever) is an infection that occurs when humans and pets inhale soil dwelling fungal spores. Protozoans are single celled organisms that cause diseases like malaria, American sleeping sickness, and trichomoniasis. Parasitic worms are the largest of the pathogens. Small pinworms to large tapeworms are the sizes that worms can be. Eating raw sushi can increase the risk of parasitic worms infection. Prion is self-replicating protein-based agent that can infect humans and animals like mad cow disease.

Sexually transmitted infections are infections that a person can get when having unprotected sex, vaginally, anally, or orally. There are 20 known types of STDs. Practicing safe sex is the key to protecting yourself from STDs. Here are the risks for various sexual behaviors.

  • High-risk behaviors: unprotected vaginal, anal, and oral sex. Any activity that involves direct contact with bodily fluids, such as ejaculate, vaginal secretions, or blood.
  • Moderate-risk behaviors: Vaginal, anal, or oral sex with latex or polyurethane condom and a water-based lubricant used properly and consistently can greatly reduce the risk of STI transmission. Dental dams used during oral sex can also greatly reduce the risk of STI transmission.
  • Low-risk behaviors: Mutual masturbation, if there are no cuts on the hand, penis, or vagina, is very low risk. Rubbing, kissing, and massaging carry low risk, but herpes can be spread by skin-to-skin contact from an infected partner.
  • No-risk behaviors: Abstinence, phone sex, talking, and fantasy are all no-risk behaviors.

Some STIs are as followed:

  • Chlamydia- bacterium chlamydia trachomatis. Most commonly reported STI.
  • Gonorrhea- Most common STIs in the U.S. Caused by bacterial pathogen, Neisseria gonorrhea
  • Herpes- simplex virus. Two types of herpes simplex virus are HSV-1 and HSV-2. Only 1 in 6 people in the U.S. currently have HSV-2. But half of adults have HSV-1. HSV-1 is usually appearing as cold sores on the mouth. Both herpes types 1 and 2 can infect any area of the body, producing lesions or sores in and around the vaginal area or on the penis, and around the anal opening, buttocks, things, or mouth. Herpes simplex virus remains in nerve cells for life and can flare up when the body’s ability to maintain itself is weakened. Burning sensation and redness at the site of infections are the precursor phase of herpes. This phase is quickly followed by the second phase. The second phase is when a blister filled with a clear fluid contains the virus forms. One has to be careful that the herpes does not spread to their eyes because it may cause blindness. Over a period of time, the blister will crust over, dry up, and disappear, and the virus will travel to the base of an affected nerve supplying the area and become dormant. Genital herpes is serious to pregnant women because the baby can be infected as its passes through the vagina during birth. Women with a history of genital herpes appear to have a greater risk of developing cervical cancer. Diagnosis involves a blood test or analyzing a sample forms the suspected sore. There is no cure for herpes. However, certain drugs can be used to treat symptoms. Acyclovir and over-the-counter medication such as Abrea will help the keep the disease from spreading. However, most drugs only seem to work if the infection is confirmed during the first few hours after contact. Famciclovir may reduce viral shedding between outbreaks, possibly reducing risks to sexual partners.
  • Syphilis- bacterium, Treponema palladium. Highest in adults ages 20 to 39. Its known as the “great imitator”, its resembles other infections.
  • Genital Warts/ Human Papillomavirus (HPV)- over 100 different types of HPV. More than 40 types are sexually transmitted.

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDs) is a global health threat. The virus that causes AIDs is known as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Here are ways that HIV is transmitted to an individual. High-risk behaviors of contracting HIV/AIDS are exchanging of body fluids and injecting drugs. Exchanging of body fluids is the greatest risk factor. The exchange of HIV-infected body fluids during vaginal or anal intercourse. Blood, semen, and vaginal secretions are the major fluids of concern. Injecting drugs is the big percentage of AIDS cases in the U.S. This is from sharing or using HIV-contaminated needles and syringes. Illegal drugs are most common use for needles, however people with diabetes who inject insulin can also be affected if the needles are not clean or have been used. Ways to reduce the transmission of HIV/AIDS are use a condom when having sex, if getting a tattoo makes sure the place is clean uses sterilization procedures, never share needles, and make sure everything that is used like needles, piercing tools are all sterilized.

Enters the body of a person who has been infected by HIV. The infected person’s body fluids, semen, vaginal secretions, and blood, often get through a break in the mucous membranes of the genital organs or the anus. Other ways that HIV can be transmitted is uses dirty needles; either by injecting drugs, going to a dirty tattoo parlor or body piercing place, or an infected mother can pass it to their child through labor and delivery or breast-feeding.

This chapter relates to my health aspect by eating clean foods to help keep diseases away, like colds and flus. I have been doing ok. I have gotten back on track after Thanksgiving. It was a little bit difficult. I tried my best, but I LOVE stuffing and it’s hard for me not to a couple of helpings. I went back to my trainer today, boy did she kick my butt! Boy did I need a butt kicking. I have not been to the gym for a week. Happy to report I am back on the stick!

Here is a picture of me and one of the pup pups I dog sit for. She loves giving kisses!



CVD, Cancer, and Diabetes

Cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, and diabetes, these three major causes are the leading cause of deaths in the Unites States. Many people knows at least one person how suffers for one of these. The scarier fact is its probably most of you knows more than more people who suffer from this illness. Personally, all of my grandparents dead from at least one of these diseases. I had an uncle who passed away a few years ago from colon cancer at the age of 56. My grandmother suffered from a heart disease. I have a second cousin who battles with diabetes. Its sad that many people across the world and mostly in the United States are suffering with these causes. Through out chapter 11, the chapter focuses on CVD, cancer, and diabetes.

CVD are diseases that affect the heart and blood vessels. 1 of 3 adults suffers with some type of CVD. CVD claims more lives each year than cancer, chronic lower respiratory diseases, and accidents. Obesity, hypertension, and diabetes are contracting to the raise of CVD because of their growing rates. The cardio system is made up of organs and vessels. This network helps blood flow as it carries oxygen and nutrients to all parts of the body. The heart, arteries, arterioles, veins, venules, and capillaries are all including in this network too. The heart is a muscular, four-chambered pump, roughly the size of your fist. The human body contains about 6 quarts of blood. The blood transfers nutrients, oxygen, waste products, hormones, and enzymes throughout the body. An average adult heart beats 70 to 80 times per minute at rest. Heart activity depends on the complex interaction of biochemical, physical, and neurological signals. The pathway of the blood flowing through the heart and blood vessels are as followed. Deoxygenated blood flows into the right atrium from the superior and inferior venue cavae. Blood moves from the right atrium into the right ventricle. From there it is pumped through the pulmonary arteries into the lungs. Blood picks up oxygen and discards carbon dioxide in the lungs. Then it goes through the pulmonary veins into the left atrium. Oxygenated blood is forced from he left atrium into the left ventricle. From there it is pumped through the aorta into the rest of the body’s blood vessels.

Hypertension, atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, and stroke are the major CVD. Each of these diseases causes death and disabilities. Hypertension refers to sustained high blood pressure. Hypertension is the silent killer because people often don’t know they have it. 1 in 3 U.S. adults have high blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured by two numbers, systolic pressure (top number) and diastolic pressure (bottom number). Blood pressure classification:

Classification              Systolic Reading (mm Hg)                Diastolic Reading (mm Hg)

Normal                       Less than 120                                    And     Less than 80

Prehypertension       120-130                                 Or        80-89


Stage 1           140-159                                 Or        90-99

Stage 2           Greater than or                     Or        Greater than or

equal to 160                                      equal to 100

Prehypertension is when the blood pressure is above normal. Treatments for hypertension involve dietary changes (reducing sodium and calorie intake), weight loss (when appropriate), use of diuretics and other medications (when prescribed by a physician), regular exercise, treatment of sleep disorder such as sleep apnea, and the practice of relaxation techniques and effective coping and communication skills.

Atherosclerosis is the fatty substances, cholesterol, cellular waste products, calcium, and fibrin build up in the inner lining of an artery. Hyperlipidemia (an abnormally high blood lipid level) is a key factor in this process, and resulting build up which is called plaque. Arteries become clogged by a buildup of plaque. When atherosclerosis occurs in coronary arteries, blood flow to the heart muscle is restricted and a heart attack may occur. Atherosclerosis is often called coronary artery disease (CAD). Atherosclerosis also occurs in the lower extremities, which is called peripheral artery disease (PAD). PAD usually affects over 65 people, non-Hispanic blacks, and women in the United States. Treatment for atherosclerosis mostly focuses on lifestyle changes, drugs that reduce the risk of plague, medical procedures to open vessels or surgery to open clogged vessels.

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the greatest killer of CVD. 1 in 6 deaths in the United States will be CHD. Myocardial infarction (MI) or a heart is when an area of the heart that suffers permanent damage because its normal blood supply has been blocked. This condition is brought on a coronary thrombosis (clot) or an atherosclerotic narrowing that blocks a coronary artery. Common heart attack symptoms and signs:

Sign or symptom                                           Gender who most commonly experiences

Crushing or squeezing chest pain                           more common in men

Pain radiating down arm, neck, or jaw                   more common in men

Chest discomfort or pressure with shortness        Women fell pressure than pain

Have breathe, nausea/vomiting, or                        Women and men


Shortness of breath without chest pain,                more common in women

Discomfort in back, neck, or

Jaw or in one or both arm

Unusual weakness                                                    more common in women

Unusual fatigue                                                         more common in women

Sleep disturbance                                                     more common in women

Indigestion, flulike                                                    more common in women

Stroke occurs when blood supply to the brain is interrupted, killing brain cells, which have little capacity to heal or regenerate. There are four blood vessel disorders that can lead to stroke.

  1. Thrombus is a blood clot that forms inside a blood vessel and blocks the flow of blood at its origin.
  2. Embolus is a blood clot that breaks off from its point of formation and travels in the bloodstream until it lodges in a narrowed vessel and blocks blood flow.
  3. Hemorrhage occurs when a blood vessel bursts allowing blood to flow into the surrounding tissue or between tissues
  4. The most life-threatening hemorrhagic stroke, aneurysm is the bulging of a weakened blood vessel wall.

FAST, Facial droop Arm weakness Speech difficulty and Time to ACT and call 9-11, is the acronym is a simple test for strokes.

  • Facial Droop: Ask the person to smile. If both side of the face moves equally its normal. It is abnormal if one side moves less easily.
  • Arm Weakness: Ask the person to raise both arms. Normal if both arms move equally or not at all. Abnormal id one arm drifts or cannot be raised as high as the other.
  • Speech Difficulty: Have the patient restate a sentence, like “You can’t teach a dog new tricks”. Normal if they can say the sentence correctly, not normal if they use inappropriate words, slur or cannot speak.
  • Time to ACT and call 9-1-1: Don’t delay if you note 1 to3 above. Time is of the essence.

Other CVD:

  • Angina Pectoris- occurs when there is not enough oxygen to supply the heart muscle, resulting in chest pain or pressure. Mild-to-sever symptoms of angina, from digestion or heartburn-like sensation to chest pain.
  • Arrhythmias- an irregularity in heart rhythm that occurs when the electric impulses in your heart that coordinate heartbeat don’t with properly.
  • Congestive Heart Failure- acute shortness of breath and fatigue are often key. HF can be fatal.
  • Congenital and Rheumatic Heart Disease- 32,000 children in the United States are born with it. Rheumatic heart disease is attributed to rheumatic fever, an inflammatory disease caused by an unresolved streptococcal infection of the throat.

Metabolic syndrome is a group of metabolic conditions occurring together that increase a person’s risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. MetS is believed to increase atherosclerotic heart disease by as much as 3 times normal rates. 20% of people ages 20 to 30, 41% ages 40 to 59, and 52% people over the age of 60 meat the criteria of MetS. However National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel say the criteria of metabolic syndrome a person must have at least three of the following risks:

  • Abdominal obesity- more than 40ins in men and 35ins in women
  • Elevated blood fat- triglycerides greater than 150 mg/dL
  • Low lever of high-density lipoprotein- least than 40mg/dL in men and less than 50mg/gL in women
  • Blood pressure is greater than 130/85 mm Hg
  • Fasting glucose greater than 100mg/dL- a sign of insulin resistance or glucose intolerance

LDL is the low-density lipoprotein. LDL is the “bad” cholesterol. Which is believed to build up on artery walls. LDL cholesterol levels should be lower numbers which is the better for a person; less than 100mg/dL optimal, 100 to 129 mg/dL near or above optimal. DL or high-density lipoprotein is the “good” cholesterol. HDL cholesterol levels should be higher number are better, less then 40mg/dL (for men) are low and 60 mg/dL and above desirable. HDL removes the build up from LDL. If LDL levels get too high and HDL levels are too low, cholesterol will accumulate inside arteries and lead to cardiovascular problems. Triglycerides are stored fat cells to provide energy. High counts of blood triglycerides are often found in people who are obese or overweight that have high cholesterol levels, heart problems, or diabetes. Triglycerides level should be a lower number, less than 150mg/dL.

Many risk factors for CVD can be modified. These modified would be cigarette smoking, high blood cholesterol and triglycerides levels, hypertension, lack of exercise, a diet high in saturated fat, obesity, diabetes, and emotional stress. Some factors would be age, gender, and heredity. These factors cannot be modified. Electrocardiogram (ECG) is a record of the heart’s electrical activity. Patients may undergo a stress test, like exercising on a stationary bike or treadmill with an electrocardiogram, or a nuclear stress test, which involves injecting a radioactive dye and taking images of the heart to reveal blood flow problems. Coronary bypass surgery is an established treatment for heart blockage. However increasing numbers of angioplasty procedures and stents are being used with great success. During therapies can be used to prevent and treat CVD.

Cancer is group of diseases that are uncontrolled growth and spreading of abnormal cells. Some tumors are malignant, cancerous; most tumors are benign, noncancerous. Metastasis is the process that cancer goes through. First cells are genetically altered. Cell divides more rapidly than normal. Cells change form. In situ cancer is a cell that stays in one place. Malignant tumor, cancer, invades normal tissue and enters blood and lymph. There are four broad categories for cancerous tissues; carcinomas, sarcomas, lymphomas, leukemia’s. Hereditary facts cannot be modified. However, environmental factors are modifiable. Tobacco use, Alcohol use, poor nutrition, physical inactivity, obesity, and stress and psychosocial are all lifestyle risks for cancer.

Lung Cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths for both men and women in the Untied States. 90% of all lung cancers could be avoided if people did not smoke. Symptoms of lung cancer include persistent cough, blood-streaked sputum, voice change, chest pain or back pain, and recurrent attacks of pneumonia or bronchitis. Surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted biological therapies are all options to treatment for lung cancer.

Breast Cancer is a group of diseases that cause uncontrolled cell growth in breast tissue. Cancer can form in the connective and lymphatic tissues of the breast. 1 to 8-lifetime risk of being diagnosed with breast cancer.

Another cancer are colon, skin, rectal, prostate and testicular, ovarian, cervical and endometrial and leukemia and lymphoma. All of these cancers can be prevented by healthy choices and exercises. Eating nutrients diets of fruits and vegetables, lean proteins, and whole grain will help the fight against cancer.

Eight million people in the U.S. are undiagnosed diabetics. 1 in 3 people in the U.S. will have diabetes by 2050. A healthy person, a sufficient amount of insulin is produced and released by the pancreas and used efficiently by the cells. Type 1 diabetes the pancreas makes little or no insulin. In type 2 diabetes, either the pancreas does not make sufficient insulin or cells are resistant to insulin and thus are notable to use it efficiently.

This chapter opened my eyes to take my healthy seriously! This chapter relates to my health aspect of cleaning eating. I must have a clean food items to help fight against cancer, diabetes, and CVD. This is something that I can control. I may not be able to control my genetics but I can control on how to live my life in a healthier manner. I cannot express how much this chapter has made me really think about my health. Out of all the chapters that I have read, this one is really made me think and put more life interpretive.

This week has been difficult. I have lost my way. However, after this chapter I am ready to get back on track! I am hoping that I don’t overdo it with Thanksgiving!

Happy Thanksgiving to everyone!



Fitness is an important aspect to everyone’s life. Just like a health eating habits, fitness goes hand and hand. Physical activity is any body movement that works your muscles, uses more energy that when resting and enhances health. Physical activity for health, physical fitness, and performance are all categories of physical activity. Planned, structured, and repetitive bodily movement done to improve or maintain one or more components of physical fitness is exercise. Exercise is very important to fitness. Physical fitness refers to a set of health and performance-related attributes. There are four different types of physical fitness:

  • Cardiorespiratory fitness: ability to sustain aerobic whole-body activity for a prolonged period of time. Heart, lungs and blood vessels to supply the body with oxygen efficiently. Aerobic exercise is the primary category of physical activity to improve cardiorespiratory fitness. Oxygen is required to make energy for prolonged activity. Aerobic capacity/power is the volume of oxygen the muscles consume during exercise. Maximal aerobic power is the maximal volume of oxygen that the muscles consume during exercise. Walk or run test on a treadmill is the most common maximal aerobic capacity.
  • Muscular strength: maximum force able to be exerted by single contraction of a muscle or muscle group. Muscle or group of muscles is capable of exerting in one contraction.
  • Muscular endurance: ability to perform high-intensity muscle contractions repeatedly without fatiguing. Group of muscles, endurance activity.
  • Flexibility: ability to move joints freely through their full range of motion. Joints or series of joints.
  • Body composition: the amount and relative proportions and distribution of fat mass and fat-free mass in the body. Fat and lean tissues- muscles, bone, and water organs.

There are many health benefits of physical activity. Some major related benefits:

  • Reduced Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: Reduces hypertension or chromic high blood pressure. Reduces low-density lipoproteins, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Lowers risk for coronary artery.
  • Reduced Risk of Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes
  • Reduced Cancer Risk: Lowers colon and rectal cancer. Lowers breast cancer.
  • Improved Bone Mass and Reduced Rick of Osteoporosis
  • Improved Weight Control: Increases metabolic rate.
  • Improved Immunity: Reduces susceptibility to disease. Increases the number of white blood cells
  • Improved Back Strength: Maintains proper posture and avoid posture-related stress in the neck, shoulders, hips, knees, and ankles.
  • Improved Mental Health and Stress Management: Improves mood. Decreases risk of depression, anxiety. Improves self-esteem.
  • Longer Life Span

When you are ready for start your road to physical activity, you must find something that you enjoy doing. However, if you have been inactive for a while, it’s best to consult your doctor first. Once you get the ok, you should start off slowly. Walking would be a good physical activity to start with. Gradually introducing walking would be good too, start with 10 minutes then bump up the time, as you get better. Incorporating fitness into your life is very important. Some obstacles that people may need to overcome are lack of time, social influence, lack of motivation, willpower, or energy, and lack of resources.

Any important component to sticking with your physical activity would set up SMART goals and use the FITT principle. SMART goals are specific, measureable, action-oriented, realistic, and time-orientated. FITT (frequency, intensity, time, and type) are uses to devise a workout plan.

Frequency: how often you must exercise. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend moderate physical activity 5 days a week. Major muscle groups 2 to 3 days a week should be preformed by 8 to 10 exercises.

Intensity: how hard your workout must be. A minimum of 2 to 3 days per week for flexibility training, daily training is even better.Target heart rate: heart rate between 64 and 96% of your maximum heart rate. To calculate this target heart rate, first you have to estimate your maximal heart rate with the formula, 206.9-(0.67 x age). Then multiply by .64, lower, and .94, upper, to determine the lower and upper limits of your target range. Example: 206.9- (.67 x 30)= 186.8, 186.8 x .64= 119.55, 186.8 x .94= 175.59, Target range= 120-176 beats per minute. Take your pulse during your workout to determine how close you are to your target heart rate. Lightly place your index and middle fingers over one of the major arteries in your neck, or on the artery on the inside of your waist. Start counting your pulse immediately after you stop exercising as your heart rate decreases rapidly.Borg’s rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale: how hard you feel you are working. Which you might base on your heart rate, breathing rate, sweating, and level of fatigue. This scale uses a rating from 6 to 20. An RPE of 12 to 16 is generally recommended for training the cardiorespiratory system.”Talk Test”: The easiest method. A “moderate” level of exercise is a conversational level of exercise. At this level you able to talk with a partner while exercising. Talking only in short fragments and not sentences; you may be at a “vigorous” level of exercise. Breathing so hard that talking is difficult.Maximum amount of weight you can lift in one contraction. One repetition maximum (1 RM) and can be individually determined or predicted from 10 RM test. Hold static stretching positions at an individually determined “point of tension”.

Time: how many minutes or repetitions of an exercise are requires per session. American College of Sports Medicine recommends vigorous actives at least 20 minutes at a time and least 30 minutes of moderate activities. Repetitions and sets, and rest periods. Hold each stretch at the “point of tension” for 10 to 30 seconds for each stretch.

Type: the kind of exercises performed. 20 or more minutes will improve cardiorespiratory fitness. Resistance training is most often recommended using either your own body weight or devices that provide a fixed or variable resistance. Static stretching, slowly and gradually lengthens a muscle or group muscles and their attached tendons, is the safest stretching exercise.

Plan it, Start it, and stick with it. Make the exercise enjoyable. Start slowly. Make only one lifestyle change at a time. Set reasonable expectations for yourself and your physical fitness program. Choose a time to exercise and stick with it. Keep a record of your progress. Take lapses in stride.

Core training is important for maintain full mobility and stability and for preventing back injury. Exercises like yoga, tai chi, and Pilates will help with core training. People with asthma, obesity, coronary heart disease and hypertension, diabetes, and older adults should consult a doctor before exercising. Nutrition and exercise goes hand and hand. Make sure you time your food intake before exercising so your body is fueled. Stay hydrated is key in exercising.

Fitness is important to cleaning eating. Knowing the appropriate food to eat helps keep me on track with my fitness. My body needs the appropriate clean foods to keep my exercise program in check. This week I have upped my exercise. I have been doing exercise for 4 days a week. I have been doing the elliptical and arc trainer. I also have been seeing my trainer once a week. She helps motivate me. She is also helping my get comfortable with weights and other weight equipment.

After enjoying a nice walk!


Weight Management & Body Image


The United States is the fattest nations on Earth. Overweight and obesity have become the fifth leading risks for global death. Obesity affects young and old, rich and poor, rural and urban, educated and uneducated in the United States. Obesogenic is the increased food intake, nonhealthful foods, and physical inactivity that have been increasing in our society. Obesity has tripled among children and doubled among adults in the last decade. More than 68% of U.S adults are overweight or obese. Obesity comes with many health risks like heart disease, diabetes. The obesity rates of children who are between the ages of 2 and 5 have dropped significantly. Some reasons for this drop includes greater pubic awareness; more options for healthy foods in child care centers, restaurants, and grocery stores; improved labeling; improvements in physical activity programs; and decreases in sugar consumption. However, low parental education, low-income, and higher unemployment are related to increased risk of overweight/obesity in youth.

Obesity has been rapidly gaining ground on health problems. Cardiovascular disease (CVD), stroke, cancer, hypertension, diabetes, depression, digestive problems, gallstones, sleep apnea, osteoarthritis, and other life threatening are related to obesity and overweight of people. Diabetes is strongly associated with obesity and overweight, which is a major concern. 26 million American are diabetic and 79 million adults are pre-diabetic. Some psychological effects with obesity and overweight are depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, poor body image, and suicidal acts and thoughts. Some other subtle consequences with obesity and overweight are binge eating and unhealthy weight-control practices; lack of adequate health care due to doctors spending less time with and doing fewer interventions on overweight patients and doctors reluctance to perform preventive health screenings; and reluctance to visit the doctors and get necessary preventive health care services.

Genetics, physiology, and environment all play a role on your body weight. Body type and Genes: Children whose parents are obese tend to be overweight. Both genetics and the gene, environment interaction is thought to paly a role in body composition. FTO gene may be the most important. FTO gene people may graze on food more often and eat more meals and consume more calories every day. Another gene theory is the thrifty gene. Thrifty gene theory is higher body fat and obesity levels in certain Indian and African Tribes. The theory is that their ancestors struggled through centuries of famine and survived by adapting with slowed metabolism. People may be genetically programmed to burn fewer calories.

Physiological Factors: The number of calories consumes is important, but metabolism also helps determine weight. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the minimum rate at which the body uses energy when working to maintain basic vital functions. The average of a healthy adult is 1,200 or 1,800 calories per day. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) includes BMR plus any energy expended through daily sedentary activates. Exercise metabolic rate (EMR) accounts for all remaining daily calorie expenditures. The younger you are, the higher your BMR. BMR is the highest during infancy, puberty, and pregnancy. After age 30, a person’s BMR slows down by 1 to 2% a year. Middle-aged people struggle with weight gain because of they are less activate, shifting priorities from fitness to family and career, and loss in muscle mass. Some researchers say that the hypothalamus monitors levels of certain nutrients in the blood. Which when they fall the brain signals to eat. One theory is that an obese person’s monitoring system make cues to eat more frequent and intensely than others. Adaptive thermogenesis, another theory, is when the brain slows metabolic activity and energy expenditure as a form of defensive protection against starvation. Adaptive thermogenesis make is difficult to lose weight. Another theory is the set point theory. The set point theory is our body to fight to maintain our weight around a narrow range or at a set point. Yo-yo diets, repeat gain weight then lose it quickly, is not a good idea. This type of dieting actually lowers BMR, which will make a person regain pounds lost and/or adding more.

Environmental Factors: Some of our daily activities can lead to weight gain. Sitting more and moving less contribute to weight gain. Adverting of unhealthy. High-calorie foods and increasing portion sizes contributes to weight gain. Eating out more. Misleading food-labels confuse people about portion and serving sizes.

Socioeconomic factors affect weight control. People tend to eat inexpensive, high-calorie processed food when economic times are tough. People who are living in poverty have less access to fresh, nutrient-dense foods. People who have less time to cook nutritious meals due to longer commutes, shiftwork, or multiple jobs also have affects on weight control. Unsafe neighborhoods make it difficult for people to get exercise in.

Everyone has their own ideal weight, based on body structure, height, and fat distribution. These charts can be misleading because they do not take body composition. A more accurate measures of evaluating healthy weight and disease risk focus on a person’s percentage of body fat and how that fat is distributed in his or her body. Some fat is essential for healthy body functioning. Fat regulates body temperature, cushions and insulates organs and tissues, and is the body’s main source of stored energy. There are two types of fat, essential and storage. Essential fat is necessary for maintenance of life and reproductive functions. Storage fat in nonessential fat. Overweight is increased body weight due to excess fat that exceeds healthy recommendations. Obesity refers to body weight that greatly exceeds health recommendations. Overweight is 1 to 19% above someone’s ideal weight. Obesity is 20% or more above someone’s ideal weight. Morbidly obese is 100% or more about someone’s ideal weight. Men’s bodies usually contain between 8 to 20% total body fat. Women’s bodies usually range 20 to 30% total body fat. Some men and women maybe underweight, men 3 to 7% body fat and women 8 to 20% body fat. Being underweight can seriously compromise health. Low body fat can cause hair loss, visual disturbances, skin problems, tendency to fracture bones easily, digestive system disturbances, heart irregularities, gastrointestinal problems, difficulties in maintaining body temperature, and amenorrhea (women).

Body mass index (BMI) is a description of body weight relative to height, numbers highly correlated with total body fat. To find BMI: weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI vary with age and sex. Some tables of BMI do not account some key variables. Healthy weight is having a BMI of 18.5 to 24.9. Overweight is a BMI of 25 to 29.9, which has significant health risks. BMI of 30 or above is obese. BMI of 40 to 49.9 is morbidly obese. Super obese is a BMI of 50 or higher. There is about 3% of obese men and 7% of obese women are morbidly obese. BMI level does not include water, muscle, and bone mass or account for the fact that muscle weighs more than fat. BMI is inaccurate for people who are less than 5 feet tall or are older and have little muscle mass. Carrying your fat may be more important than knowing how much fat you have. Men and postmenopausal women store fat in the abdominal area. Premenopausal women store fat in the hips, buttocks, and thighs. A waist circumference measurement is increasingly recognized as a useful tool in assessing abdominal fat. Abdominal fat is more life treating to health that fat in other regions. Waist circumference increases the risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and stroke increases. Men who have a waistline greater than 40 inches and women who have 35 inches have a greater health risk. Waist-to-hip ratio measures regional fat distribution. Men who have greater than 1 and 0.8 in women in waist-to-hip ratio increase in health risks. Waist-to-hip ratio is inexpensive and accurate but it is less practical to use in clinical settings and believe that for most people, waist circumference and BMI are sufficient. Other body fat measurements tools are underwater weighing, skin folds, bioelectrical impedance analysis, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and bod pod.

Calories are a unit of measures that indicates the amount of energy gained from food or expended through activities. If you consume more than 3500 calories, you will gain a pound of fat. However if you body expends an extra 3,500 calories, you lose a pound of fat. Any increase in the intensity, frequency, and duration of daily exercise can have a significant impact on total calorie expenditure because lean tissue or muscle is more metabolically active than fat tissue. There is three factors depend on the number of calories spent: 1. The number and proportion of muscles used 2. The amount of weight moved 3. The length of time the activity takes. Programs like weight watchers and the Mediterranean diets are effective towards weight loss. Supportive friends, relatives, community resources, and policies that support healthy food choices and exercise options all increase the likelihood of successful weight lost. Making a plan, changing your habits, and incorporating exercise will make weight loss and management successful.  Depression, stress, cultural influences, and the availability of high-fat, high-calorie foods can also make weight loss harder.

A very-low-calorie diets(VLCDs) should never be untaken with strict medical supervision. A dangerous complication of VLDs or starvation diets is ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis is when a person’s blood becomes more acidic, which causes severe damage to body tissue. Some diet drugs may cause, heart attacks, heart value problems, stroke, and liver damage. Some diet drugs and supplements to be aware and caution of; Human chorionic ganadotropin, sibutramine, hoodia gordonii, and herbal weight-loss aids.

Body image have several components:

  • How you see yourself in your mind
  • What you believe about your  appearance
  • How you feel about your body
  • How you sense and control your body as you move

Many people have issues with their body image. Personally I have some issues of the way I will my body. Currently I am not happy with the way that my body looks. Yes, I am working towards fell comfortable with myself. Right now I would put myself in the category of negative body imaging, either distorted perception of your shape or feeling  of discomfort, shame, or anxiety about your body. I have very uncomfortable about my body and the way I look. Sometimes I do feel shame and disgusted. My goal is to have a positive body image, true perception of you appearance. I have been working on my body image by eating healthier, talking about myself in a positive way, kicking out the negative thoughts,working on my emotions, and exercising more.

Eating disorders a diagnosis that can be applied only by a physician to a a patients who exhibits severe disturbances in thoughts, behaviors, and body functioning. APA defines several eating disorders:

  • anorexia nervosa: persistent, chronic, characterized by deliberate food restriction and severe, life-threatening weight loss. Self-stravtion motivated by an intense fear of gaining weight along with an extremely distorted body image. People who have this eating disorder eats very little, may purge through vomiting or use of laxatives. Physical symptoms and negative health consequences; heart attacks and seizures, blood levels of iron and electrolytes fall dangerously low, depression, anxiety, fatigue, poor sleep, muscle tissue lost, and other negative side effects. Highest death rate, 20%, of any psychological illness
  • bulimia nervosa: binge on huge amounts of food and then engage in some kind of purging or “compensatory behavior”. “hidden” from public eye. Physical symptoms and negative health consequences; throat becomes inflamed and glands in the face, neck, and jaw become swollen and sore, tooth enamel erodes, esophagus can become inflamed or rupture, rebound constipation, kidney malfunction and dehydration.
  • binge-eating disorder: gorge on food. Diagnosing this disease someone must at least exhibit three or more of these behaviors: 1. eating much more rapidly than normal; 2. eating until uncomfortably full; 3. eating large amounts when not physically hungry; 4. eating alone because of embarrassment over how much one is eating; 5. feeling disgusted, depressed, or very guilty after overeating. Without treatment 20% of people will die.

This chapter relates to my health aspect of clean eating. I know that I have some work on do on my thought about my body image and clean eating will help me get there. I need to start feeling better about myself. Every Tuesday, I work with my dietitian Andrea at A Healthy Balance Inc in Quincy. I have been working with her for the past year. During the past year, I have had a better handle on my relationship with food. I have not lost a lot, but I do not let this discourage me. The other day I was having a conversation with Andrea and I realized that I know the scale hasn’t moved in mouths but I have come a long way. Usually when I use a lot of weight, I gain it all back  and they bring some extra friends with them. The past year I have be at a stable weight, yes its not where I would like to be, but I have been MAINTAINING! Which I would have never have done in the past. So I feel like that is a HUGE WIN!

This week has been going a lot better. I have been back on track and been tracking in my FitnessPal, which I haven’t really been doing. This past Tuesday was my monthly check in, measurements and BMI. I have gained found of muscle and lost a pound of fat. The scale really haven’t move but I am not with that. I have not been focusing one the scale as much as I have in the past. Keeping the motivation doing for this week! 🙂

Here is the a picture of myself and the two little boys I have nanny for 6 years! img_4410